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Chapter

Cover International Criminal Law

5. Investigations, prosecutions, evidence, and procedure  

This chapter deals with international criminal procedure, focusing on the International Criminal Court (ICC). It first introduces international criminal procedure and the various parties involved in the process (judges, prosecutors, suspects or accused persons, and witnesses and victims). It then examines the pre-trial phase of proceedings, including criminal investigation, the decision to prosecute, and the role of the document specifying the charges (called an ‘indictment’ by some courts and national systems). Next, the chapter provides an overview of the trial phase and examines the role of guilty pleas, evidence (and its pre-trial disclosure), and the conduct of trial proceedings.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Criminal Law

21. Appeals and enforcement  

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

The right of defendants to appeal against conviction or sentence is normally regarded as a fundamental human right. At present this right is laid down in numerous international treaties on human rights, as well as in the Statutes of international courts. The notion and purpose of appellate proceedings vary in national systems. Subject to a number of specifications and exceptions, in civil law countries, that is countries of Romano-Germanic legal tradition, these proceedings amount largely to a retrial by a court of appeal. In contrast, in most common law countries appellate proceedings do not lead to a retrial. Appeals courts, which do not have any jury, do not review facts, but decide on the basis of the trial record. In international criminal proceedings neither the common law system nor the civil law model have been upheld. Rather, a mixed system has been accepted, which is discussed in this chapter.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

11. The trial  

This chapter focuses on the criminal trial itself which is the focal point of criminal procedure. The rules governing trials therefore shape the decisions made by the police and prosecutors. The trial remains important because defendants’ decisions on whether or not to plead guilty are often informed by what they believe to be the probability of conviction. The chapter considers the courtroom processes and raises questions about the roles of judge and jury. The chapter also discusses the modes of trial; the Crown Court trial; and confrontation and the protection of witnesses all of which are closely connected to issues of procedural fairness.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

14. Criminal process values  

This chapter reflects upon the values that appear to dominate the English criminal process, the values that ought to dominate it, and how change might be brought about, in the context of austerity and diminishing resource allocation for both economic and ideological reasons. Specifically, it considers the avoidance of criminal trials, as well as the principled approach to criminal justice. The purpose of the criminal process is to bring about accurate determinations through fair procedures. The approach therefore emphasizes various rights and principles that ought to be safeguarded. The chapter then covers discrimination and non-discrimination, as well as promoting the principled approach.

Chapter

Cover Complete Criminal Law

1. Introduction to the criminal justice system  

This chapter discusses the principles and structure of criminal law and evaluates the criminal justice system in the light of statistics and public perception and the context in which the criminal law operates. It begins with a discussion of the definition of crime and criminalisation and explains theories of criminal law, such as the harm principle, moralism, and feminism. Problem question technique and IRAC are discussed in this chapter. The burden and standard of proof in criminal proceedings and the classification of crimes and the courts are discussed. Finally, the chapter explores miscarriages of justice, punishment, and access to justice.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

9. Corroboration and care warnings  

This chapter discusses exceptions to the general rule that there is no requirement for evidence to be corroborated. There are three categories of exception (i) where corroboration is required as a matter of law (speeding, perjury, treason, and attempts to commit these offences) and therefore a conviction cannot be based on uncorroborated evidence; (ii) where neither corroboration in a technical sense nor supportive evidence is required as a matter of law, but the tribunal of fact may need to be warned to exercise caution before acting on the evidence of certain types of witness, if unsupported; (iii) five cases in which corroboration is not required as a matter of law, and there is no obligation to warn the tribunal of fact of the danger of acting on the unsupported or uncorroborated evidence, but there is a special need for caution. The five cases are confessions by mentally handicapped persons, identification evidence, lip-reading evidence, cases of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and unconvincing hearsay. Identification evidence is dealt with separately in Chapter 10.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Criminal Law

20. Investigation and trial before international criminal courts  

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

This chapter highlights the most significant features of investigation and trial procedure before international criminal courts. It assesses how fairness has been balanced with effectiveness in the unique and challenging context of conflict or post-conflict environments.

Chapter

Cover Sanders & Young's Criminal Justice

9. Trial by judge and jury  

This chapter discusses how cases are processed in the Crown courts and trial by jury. It discusses the role and powers of the judge in relation to the management of cases, trial process and outcomes. It also discusses the jury system and how jury composition affects perceptions of the fairness and legitimacy of jury trial. Research about the impact of jury composition and juror attitudes on verdicts is discussed. The chapter goes on to consider whether key evidential rules unduly favour the defence or prosecution and attempts to further erode the practical significance of jury trial through the use of judge-only trials.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

13. Pre-Trial Matters  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter on the criminal justice system focuses on preliminary issues, i.e. some of the issues that take place before trial begins. A prosecution begins at the earliest stage through a defendant being charged by the police but under the authority of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). The CPS must then review the decision to prosecute, which requires the CPS to have reference to two prosecution tests (evidential and public interest tests). The CPS has the ability to issue out of court disposals in appropriate cases as alternatives to prosecution. If a prosecution does take place it is necessary to identify in which court the proceedings will be heard. Crimes are divided into three categories: summary, indictable-only, and either-way. Criminal matters are heard in the magistrates’ court and the Crown Court and the categorization of offences has an impact on where the matter should be heard.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

13. Pre-Trial Matters  

This chapter on the criminal justice system focuses on preliminary issues, i.e. some of the issues that take place before trial begins. A prosecution begins at the earliest stage through a defendant being charged by the police but under the authority of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). The CPS must then review the decision to prosecute, which requires the CPS to have reference to two prosecution tests (evidential and public interest tests). The CPS has the ability to issue out-of-court disposals in appropriate cases as alternatives to prosecution. If a prosecution does take place, it is necessary to identify in which court the proceedings will be heard. Crimes are divided into three categories: summary, indictable-only, and either-way. Criminal matters are heard in the magistrates’ court and the Crown Court and the categorization of offences has an impact on where the matter should be heard.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law

1. Criminal law in context  

Michael J. Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and contextual, Criminal Law provides a succinct overview of the key areas on the law curriculum balanced with thought-provoking contextual discussion. This introductory chapter answers the following questions: What is a crime? What purpose or function does the criminal law serve? What reasons are there for the criminalisation of some types of conduct? What are the purposes of punishment? What are the political and social contexts in which criminal law operates? The chapter provides an overview of key aspects of the criminal process, including mode of trial, the decision to prosecute, the burden and standard of proof, the functions of judge and jury, and sentencing. It also examines briefly the impact of the European Convention on Human Rights on English law.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

9. Pre-trial issues: disclosure and abuse of process  

This chapter reviews various procedural mechanisms to ensure that the eventual trial runs smoothly and fairly. In terms of facilitating the smooth running of the trial, it concentrates on ways of screening cases and clarifying some of the issues prior to trial. The disclosure of evidence is a fraught matter in this regard, with an impact on fairness as well as efficiency. In terms of ensuring that the defendant is not subjected to an unfair trial, it examines some question that arise under the broad heading of abuse of process, concentrating on issues of delay and the entrapment doctrine.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

14. Those in Court  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter focuses on the people who are present during criminal trials. It considers those in summary trials in magistrates’ court (magistrates, justices’ clerks/legal advisors, lawyers, and the defendant). It also considers those who are present in the Crown Court during a trial on indictment (the judge, the jury, lawyers, court clerks, the stenographer, the usher, and the defendant). The chapter also explores how lawyers for the defence are funded under the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

16. Criminal Appeals  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter examines under what circumstances someone is entitled to appeal and how that appeal is heard. The discussions cover summary trials or trials on indictment; appeals from a summary trial; appeal from a trial on indictment; appeal following an acquittal; appeal against sentence; appeals to the Supreme Court; and the Criminal Cases Review Commission. The paths of appeals differ depending on the mode of trial of the original criminal hearing. There are two potential criminal appeal avenues from a summary trial: either to the Divisional Court (by way of case stated or (exceptionally) judicial review) or to the Crown Court. An appeal ordinarily requires leave (permission) but appealing to the Crown Court from the magistrates’ court does not require leave.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

14. Those in Court  

This chapter focuses on the people who are present during criminal trials. It considers those in summary trials in magistrates’ court (magistrates, justices’ clerks/legal advisors, lawyers, and the defendant). It also considers those who are present in the Crown Court during a trial on indictment (the judge, the jury, lawyers, court clerks, the stenographer, the usher, and the defendant). The chapter then explores how lawyers for the defence are funded under the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

16. Criminal Appeals  

This chapter examines under what circumstances someone is entitled to appeal and how that appeal is heard. The discussions cover summary trials or trials on indictment; appeals from a summary trial; appeal from a trial on indictment; appeal following an acquittal; appeal against sentence; appeals to the Supreme Court; and the Criminal Cases Review Commission. The paths of appeals differ depending on the mode of trial of the original criminal hearing. There are two potential criminal appeal avenues from a summary trial: either to the Divisional Court (by way of case stated or (exceptionally) judicial review) or to the Crown Court. An appeal ordinarily requires leave (permission) but appealing to the Crown Court from the magistrates’ court does not require leave.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

2. Burden and Standard of Proof  

Chapter 2 is divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with the manner in which a dispute as to which party bears the burden of proving a particular issue in a trial should be resolved. The question may arise in a criminal trial as to whether it is the prosecution or defence which bears the burden of proving a certain issue, and in a civil trial as to whether it is the claimant or defendant who bears the burden of proving a certain issue. The second part focuses on the standard to which the burden of proving a particular issue requires to be discharged.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System Concentrate

7. The Criminal Justice System  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. This chapter examines the criminal justice system (CJS). The CJS is built upon procedural, evidential, and substantive foundations. These foundations dictate its direction and progression. A case will always begin with an investigation by the police or some other investigatory body. An individual may then be charged with an offence where he/she is provided with the option of pleading guilty or not guilty. Trial may follow. Where the defendant’s case will be tried depends on the type of offence in question and, in some cases, the decision of the defendant. A convicted person may appeal against either conviction or sentence for which the defendant will be required to prove why they either should not have been convicted, or why their sentence should be reduced.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Criminal Law

18. The Adoption of the essential features of the adversarial system  

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

This chapter begins with a comparison of the inquisitorial and adversarial systems of criminal procedure. It then discusses trial proceedings; appellate proceedings; and the adoption of the adversarial model at the international level.

Chapter

Cover International Criminal Law

6. Fair trial rights, appeals, and revision and enforcement of sentences  

There is no general law or uniform code of international criminal procedure. The International Criminal Court's procedure is still developing, and the ad hoc international criminal tribunals have their own procedural rules. However, defendants before any of the tribunals share certain fundamental fair trial rights. This chapter examines those rights and a defendant's right to appeal against their conviction or sentence. It first introduces general fair trial rights enjoyed by the defendant. It then examines in more detail the content of the right to a public, fair, and expeditious hearing. Next, it considers some of the issues concerning legality of arrest and detention, the right of appeal, and the revision and enforcement of sentences.