1-14 of 14 Results

  • Keyword: criminal justice process x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Criminal Justice

14. Psychology and criminal justice  

Joanna Adler

This chapter, which examines the role of psychology in the criminal justice process, begins with a historical context before charting the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. It then discusses the application of psychology to all stages of the criminal justice process: pre-trial, trial, and post-trial. The chapter considers how psychology has influenced the law and its application, and the role psychologists play in criminal justice settings. It also highlights ways in which the law impacts upon psychological practice using examples of limitations to culpability, diversionary schemes, and the diagnosis of Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

3. Ethics, conflicts, and conduct  

Chapter 2 sketched a normative model of the criminal process in which the pursuit of a particular end—retributive justice—was constituted and constrained by respect for rights and other values. This chapter examines one way in which the demands of this rather abstract model can be put into practice: through the consideration of ethics. It begins with a brief discussion of the idea of ethical conduct. It then outlines some unethical practices, and is followed by attempts to examine and reconstruct some possible justifications for such practices. Next, it looks at the problems of displacing the occupational cultures and other influences which may lead to resistance against change. It goes on to discuss formal accountability systems and concludes with a consideration of the prospects for bringing about changes in the conduct of practitioners within the system.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Justice

15. Forensic science and criminal justice  

Paul Roberts

This chapter examines the role of science in the criminal justice process, focusing on DNA profiling evidence, both as an important topic in its own right and as a case study illuminating broader issues. It considers the potent combination of scientific innovation and public policy making in the development of new forms of legally admissible evidence. The chapter explores some general, and fundamental, aspects of the logic of forensic proof in criminal trials.

Book

Cover The Criminal Process

Liz Campbell, Andrew Ashworth, and Mike Redmayne

The Criminal Process continues to provides a reflective, contextualized consideration of doctrinal, practical, and normative issues in criminal processes and procedures. The text draws on arguments from the law, research, policy, and principle, to present an overview of this area of study. It focuses on England and Wales, with occasional comparative references. The book includes new coverage of contemporary issues, such as the disclosure of evidence in criminal trials and the treatment of victims, and on diversity and discrimination within the criminal justice process. Further reading suggestions and discussion questions are included at the end of each chapter.

Chapter

Cover Sanders & Young's Criminal Justice

8. Summary justice in the magistrates’ court  

This chapter focuses on the magistrates’ courts. It discusses the importance of the magistracy and the work that they do; the involvement (and funding) of lawyers in summary justice; major pre-trial decisions such as bail and whether a case can be dealt with in the magistrates’ court or is so serious that it needs to be sent to the Crown court (mode of trial/allocation); how magistrates and their legal advisors measure up to the crime control/due process models of criminal justice; and the future of summary justice (including the impact of managerialist and ‘victim rights’ reforms and trends that encourage dealing with much lower court business away from the courtroom itself).

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

23. Criminal justice principles  

This chapter describes the key principles of the criminal justice system. These key principles behind the abstract aims of criminal justice include the rule of law, adversarial justice, and restorative justice. The chapter particularly focuses on the rule of law doctrine to illustrate its status as the ultimate authority for democratic systems of justice around the world, but it also reflects on three of its supplementary concepts: an independent judiciary, due process, and human rights. Meanwhile, the traditional adversarial contest in a courtroom between two opposing sides means such hearings can lack impartiality as the role of the judge is limited to ensuring that the rules are followed. The restorative justice principle offers a different dimension, one that prioritises repairing the harms suffered by the injured parties.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

14. Criminal process values  

This chapter reflects upon the values that appear to dominate the English criminal process, the values that ought to dominate it, and how change might be brought about, in the context of austerity and diminishing resource allocation for both economic and ideological reasons. Specifically, it considers the avoidance of criminal trials, as well as the principled approach to criminal justice. The purpose of the criminal process is to bring about accurate determinations through fair procedures. The approach therefore emphasizes various rights and principles that ought to be safeguarded. The chapter then covers discrimination and non-discrimination, as well as promoting the principled approach.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

7. Victimology  

Angus Nurse

This chapter assesses victimology, which has become an important sub-discipline within criminology. Victimology includes the study of victimisation as well as the challenges of legal and institutional definitions of the ‘victim’. Discussions include debates concerning victims’ rights and activism and how victimhood has come to be understood and responded to. The chapter then considers both narrow and wider ideas of victimisation, and examines whether and how criminal justice processes and public policy have developed in response to victims’ needs. While victims are really the people who the criminal investigation and trial are meant to serve, they are often not part of the process. The chapter also looks at a key part of victimology, which is the use of statistical evidence on the levels of victimisation.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

7. Prosecutions  

This chapter outlines the origins and functions of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), before moving on to discuss several aspects of the prosecutorial function in the criminal process, in the belief that the decision to prosecute someone in itself is a form of imposition by the state that requires justification. The principle of equality of treatment is discussed throughout the chapter, not least in relation to the differences of approach taken by different prosecuting agencies. The chapter evaluates some of the practices of the CPS and examines empirical evidence of its performance of various tasks. It notes that, as with other large organizations, formulating principles and guidance satisfactorily is not sufficient to ensure that implementation in practice. The role of the CPS in refining and defining the criminal law is examined as well as the role of the victim, review and oversight of prosecution decisions and policies and prosecutorial ethics.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

8. Remands before trial  

The impact on the liberty of a defendant is an important issue and this chapter analyses remand decisions, scrutinizing the justifications for taking away liberty before trial. It also considers the law relating to remands as well as the treatment of unconvicted defendants, the treatment of victims and potential victims, procedural justice and remand decisions, and, finally, equal treatment in remand decisions. The principal focus in this chapter is on the court’s decision whether to remand on bail or in custody between first appearance and trial. Also discussed are the issues of principle raised by the law and practice.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

13. Pre-Trial Matters  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter on the criminal justice system focuses on preliminary issues, i.e. some of the issues that take place before trial begins. A prosecution begins at the earliest stage through a defendant being charged by the police but under the authority of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). The CPS must then review the decision to prosecute, which requires the CPS to have reference to two prosecution tests (evidential and public interest tests). The CPS has the ability to issue out of court disposals in appropriate cases as alternatives to prosecution. If a prosecution does take place it is necessary to identify in which court the proceedings will be heard. Crimes are divided into three categories: summary, indictable-only, and either-way. Criminal matters are heard in the magistrates’ court and the Crown Court and the categorization of offences has an impact on where the matter should be heard.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

13. Pre-Trial Matters  

This chapter on the criminal justice system focuses on preliminary issues, i.e. some of the issues that take place before trial begins. A prosecution begins at the earliest stage through a defendant being charged by the police but under the authority of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). The CPS must then review the decision to prosecute, which requires the CPS to have reference to two prosecution tests (evidential and public interest tests). The CPS has the ability to issue out-of-court disposals in appropriate cases as alternatives to prosecution. If a prosecution does take place, it is necessary to identify in which court the proceedings will be heard. Crimes are divided into three categories: summary, indictable-only, and either-way. Criminal matters are heard in the magistrates’ court and the Crown Court and the categorization of offences has an impact on where the matter should be heard.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

2. Towards a framework for evaluating the criminal process  

This chapter advances a theoretical framework for evaluating criminal procedure, while keeping in mind the links between the different parts and aspects of the criminal justice system. A rights-based theory of the criminal process should have the twin goals of regulating the procedures for bringing suspected offenders to trial to produce accurate determinations, and ensuring that fundamental rights are protected in those processes. This approach should be adopted in England and Wales—both on principle and because it is implicit in international documents such as the European Convention on Human Rights that still plays a fundamental role in English law. Separate objectives for dispositive decisions are also proposed, including the decision to divert a person from the criminal process without trial.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

3. The Course of Evidence  

Chapter 3 examines the principles relating to the presentation of evidence in court. It first discusses the adversarial tradition upon which the English trial process is based. It then distinguishes between the principles governing the questioning of one’s own witness (which occurs in examination-in-chief and re-examination) and those governing the questioning of another party’s witness (which occurs in cross-examination). It shows that, in criminal proceedings, provisions in the Criminal Justice Act 2003 now deal with two particular matters that may arise in the course of questioning one’s own witness—the extent to which refreshing memory is permitted, and the extent to which a previous consistent statement is admissible in evidence. The chapter also considers other issues, including the judicial approach to ‘no case to answer’ submissions in criminal trials, and the extent to which the claimant or prosecution may adduce further evidence after closing its case.