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Chapter

This chapter considers the process of detention, questioning, and charging of the suspect. It discusses the rights of a volunteer at the police station; action immediately following arrest; the role of the custody officer; detention without charge; reviewing a suspect’s detention; the suspect’s right to intimation and/or legal advice; other rights and safeguards enjoyed by the suspect whilst in detention; the treatment of vulnerable suspects; interviewing the suspect; the requirement to caution; the elements of a fair interview; how an interview should be recorded; release pending further investigation and charging a suspect.

Chapter

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

This chapter considers the process of detention, questioning, and charging of the suspect. It discusses the rights of a volunteer at the police station; action immediately following arrest; the role of the custody officer; detention without charge; reviewing a suspect’s detention; the suspect’s right to intimation and/or legal advice; other rights and safeguards enjoyed by the suspect whilst in detention; the treatment of vulnerable suspects; interviewing the suspect; the requirement to caution; the elements of a fair interview; how an interview should be recorded; release pending further investigation and charging a suspect.

Chapter

This chapter examines the law and practice on plea negotiation. After looking at the percentage of defendants who plead guilty, it then considers some of the principal reasons for changes of plea, looking at charge bargains (where the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for the prosecution reducing the level of the charge or the number of charges); at fact bargains (where the defendant agrees to plead guilty only on the basis that the prosecution will put forward a particular version of the facts); and at plea negotiation (where the change of plea is motivated by considerations of sentence). The tendencies evident in the English system are then evaluated in the light of defendants’ rights and the supposed advantages to the public.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the following issues: the terminology of youth justice; the youth justice organisations; the meaning of parental responsibility; the principal aims of the youth justice system; the early diversion procedures to prevent further offending; the juvenile at the police station; the alternatives to prosecution; and the decision to charge.

Chapter

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

This chapter discusses the following issues: the terminology of youth justice; the youth justice organisations; the meaning of parental responsibility; the principal aims of the youth justice system; the early diversion procedures to prevent further offending; the juvenile at the police station; the alternatives to prosecution; and the decision to charge.

Chapter

This chapter examines the four ways of securing a lighter sentence by pleading guilty: the sentence discount principle; the restrictions on the sentencing powers of magistrates; charge bargaining; and ‘fact bargaining’. It then addresses the question of whether plea bargaining should be abolished.

Chapter

This chapter examines whether the combination of laws, policies, and procedures of different prosecuting and enforcement agencies is fair and effective, and why an overwhelming proportion of defendants plead guilty. It discusses the respective roles of the police and Crown Prosecution Service in prosecution decision-making; how cases are constructed for prosecution; the criteria for prosecution decision-making; diversion from prosecution; review of prosecution decisions; the different treatment of ‘regulatory’ offences and ‘real’ crime; the roles of police, prosecutors, judges and defence lawyers in persuading defendants to plead guilty; the incentives, even for the innocent, to plead guilty; whether plea bargaining should be abolished.

Chapter

This chapter first explains the role of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) and the factors that are taken into account when deciding to charge a suspect or to divert him from prosecution. It then examines the important obligations which are placed upon the CPS both at common law and under statute to serve pre-trial disclosure of evidence upon the defendant and their importance to the right to a fair trial. Defence disclosure obligations are also considered.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. Article 6 is the right to a fair trial. It looks at the scope of Article 6 – the kinds of trial it deals with; and defines “determines”, “civil rights and obligations” and “criminal charge” for this purpose. It then goes on to consider the specific rights that are inherent in the idea of a hearing that is “fair” and tribunal that is “independent” and “impartial”. It also discusses the additional rights that are enjoyed by a defendant in a criminal trial. Of particular importance throughout the chapter is the issue of adjusting the concept of ‘fairness’ to the circumstances, particularly in the context of threats to national security. The need to protect the essence of a right to a fair hearing where there are important public interests justifying restrictions is an issue that is at the heart of the Article 6 case law.

Chapter

This chapter first explains the role of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) and the factors that are taken into account when deciding to charge a suspect or to divert him from prosecution. It then examines the important obligations which are placed upon the CPS both at common law and under statute to serve pre-trial disclosure of evidence upon the defendant and their importance to the right to a fair trial. Defence disclosure obligations are also considered.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. Article 6 is the right to a fair trial. It looks at the scope of Article 6—the kinds of trial it deals with; and defines ‘determines’, ‘civil rights and obligations’, and ‘criminal charge’ for this purpose. It then goes on to consider the specific rights that are inherent in the idea of a hearing that is ‘fair’ and tribunal that is ‘independent’ and ‘impartial’. It also discusses the additional rights that are enjoyed by a defendant in a criminal trial. Of particular importance is the issue of adjusting the concept of ‘fairness’ to the circumstances, particularly in the context of threats to national security. The need to protect the essence of a right to a fair hearing where there are important public interests justifying restrictions is an issue that is at the heart of the Article 6 case law.