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Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter focuses on the measurement of crime. The first part discusses the statistics collected by the police, considering the reasons for the reporting and non-reporting of offences; police recording of crimes; and other official effects on crime statistics. The second part considers the ‘dark figure of crime’, i.e. criminal activity in England and Wales that is not covered by criminal statistics. Many criminologists have tried to assess the size of the dark figure. The three methods used are estimates (or guesses), self-report studies, and victim surveys.


Iris Chiu and Joanna Wilson

This concluding chapter studies the regulation compelling banks and financial institutions to play an active part in combatting financial crime. Regulation takes two approaches: one is to enforce anti-money laundering law through banks and financial situations; and the other approach is to enforce anti-money laundering law against them if they should be found to be complicit in transferring proceeds of crime. Under the first approach, regulation imposes duties on banks and financial institutions to act as gatekeepers to prevent money laundering from taking place and to identify such incidents so as to help regulators carry out enforcement. Under the second approach, banks and financial institutions may be punished for sometimes inadvertently becoming complicit in money laundering, and this provides a strong incentive for them to treat their gatekeeper roles seriously. The chapter then considers the regulatory duty of due diligence, financial intelligence reporting, and internal control and governance.