1-20 of 258 Results

  • Keyword: crime x
Clear all

Chapter

This chapter focuses on one of the most popular of crime statistics—the crime rate—which provides an index of crime occurring in a particular jurisdiction for a specific time period. It discusses the nature of crime statistics; counting crime; recording incidents as criminal offences; reporting crime to the police; the frequency of crime victimization; and the rate of crime victimization.

Chapter

This chapter provides a critical reflection on the nature and measurement of crime levels, patterns, and trends. It covers empirical and methodological questions about how much crime there is and how this changes over time and considers the relationship between what crime data are collected and published and changes in perceptions of and responses to the crime problem as a result of developments in the politics of crime control. The chapter is divided into three sections. The first provides a critical overview of the development of the ‘official’ crime statistics in England and Wales, highlighting some of the key decisions that are made about how to present statistics to the public and how to respond to legal changes, new sources of data, and the emergence of new kinds of criminal behaviour. The second section examines, and explores the reasons behind, a rapid growth in demand for new kinds of information about crime which has been evident since the 1970s. The final section summarizes challenges, dilemmas, and recent debates about the future of national crime statistics, including questions about how to maintain public trust and how to balance competing demands of relevance, comprehensiveness, and robust measurement of trends.

Chapter

22. Crime prevention  

Ideas and practices

This chapter examines crime prevention ideas and practices. It first explains what crime prevention is before discussing crime prevention strategies, the objectives of crime prevention, and the emergence and development of crime prevention. It then describes a framework for policy and practice based on ideas of ‘primary’, ‘secondary’, and ‘tertiary’ prevention. It also considers alternative perspectives on crime prevention; the arguments in favour of taking a preventive approach to criminal justice; the implications of crime prevention for different stakeholders, including potential victims, potential offenders, communities, politicians, and interest groups; the evidence base in support of preventive measures; models of practice in crime prevention; what prevention achieves; and the consequences of crime prevention, namely, crime escalation, adaptation, and displacement. The chapter concludes by highlighting the limitations of crime prevention.

Chapter

Steve Tombs

This chapter examines the emergence of the concept of corporate crime, discussing its meaning and reviewing the extent to which it represents a crime problem. It then considers various dimensions of corporate crime—its visibility, causation, and control—questioning society's will to censure and punish company directors and other ‘rogue’ capitalists.

Chapter

Envoi  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter, which summarises the preceding discussions and presents some final thoughts, suggests that we have now entered into a period of substantial change and progress in the field of criminology. Many of the people working in this area are now better equipped to make fuller use of statistical methods. Technological advances—and especially the development of the computer—have also revolutionised both the amount of material that can be collected and, even more, the ways in which it can be analysed and manipulated.

Book

Steve Case, Phil Johnson, David Manlow, Roger Smith, and Kate Williams

Criminology is a core, introductory textbook on the field of crime and criminology. It starts by looking at what crime is and the theories that try to explain it. It then considers society's response to crime. It shows how to carry out independent research and plan first steps in a career. The critical, applied approach is emphasized through some of the many features that are integrated throughout the book. These include conversations with authentic voices from the field, compelling personal insights, and challenges to the reader to question assumptions, apply knowledge, and critically reflect on their personal viewpoints. Topics covered include crime statistics, the media, victimology, youth crime, sociological positivism, crime control, punishment, and rehabilitation. The last part of the text applies theories of criminology to the real world and introduces the reader to what might be involved in a career in criminology research.

Chapter

This chapter evaluates the importance of crime statistics in criminological studies. Crime statistics can give an indication of how much ‘crime’ is happening, for example how many robberies or car thefts have been counted in a particular year and area. They also help to identify and assess trends and patterns, such as shifts in types of crimes and perpetrators, increases and decreases in the number of offences and in more serious acts of deviance, like assault or murder. This knowledge enables us to decide on the appropriate responses to crime, and for ‘society’ and its state agencies to implement those responses. The chapter then traces the development of UK crime statistics, looking at the two main sources of UK crime statistics: police recorded crime and the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW).

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter considers some of the influences that shape public perceptions, with particular attention to the impact of media. It then looks at some of the most problematic misconceptions about crime. The chapter illustrates the limitations of public conceptions with two brief case studies which outline specific areas of criminal activity that are not popularly perceived as criminal, namely, ‘white-collar crime’ and ‘corporate crime’.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the concepts of right realism and left realism, both of which approaches accept that there is a real crime problem and recognise the need to monitor the success of interventions to guarantee their cost-effectiveness. However, those on the right argue that criminology needs to stop trying to explain crime and start controlling behaviour, and urge the State to get tough on crime. Those on the left have been disillusioned with radical and critical criminologies, and search for simple solutions to real problems for real people who are not able to protect themselves.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the common and understandable belief that poverty can be a significant factor underlying offending. It considers first the research evidence connecting crime with poverty and unemployment, and then takes a wider view of the ways in which the structuring of society can create pressures on individuals to break the law. From the earliest times, people have sought to equate crime with poverty. If this belief is correct, there should be more crime in areas where more poor people live and at times when overall levels of poverty are higher. It was not until the development of national crime statistics in the nineteenth century that any evaluation could be made of this widely held view.

Chapter

This chapter discusses crime statistics, which, as with any other form of statistical information, are often referred to by the media as if they provide a true measurement of crime. It is now increasingly accepted that criminal statistics provide a deficient guide to both the level of crime and trends in criminal behaviour. There has been a massive increase in the amount of statistical information promulgated about crime in the last few years. This reflects in part the greater sophistication in statistical techniques, but is mostly a consequence of the growing political interest in the criminal justice system and an accompanying call for greater accountability and openness. However, there are some facts that appear incontrovertible from all measurements of crime in England and Wales.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the common and understandable belief that poverty can be a significant factor underlying offending. It considers first the research evidence connecting crime with poverty and unemployment and then takes a wider view of the ways in which the structuring of society can create pressures on individuals to break the law. From the earliest times, people have sought to equate crime with poverty. If this belief is correct, there should be more crime in areas where more poor people live and at times when overall levels of poverty are higher. It was not until the development of national crime statistics in the nineteenth century that any evaluation could be made of this widely held view.

Chapter

This chapter discusses crime statistics, which, as with any other form of statistical information, are often referred to by the media as if they provide a true measurement of crime. It is now increasingly accepted that criminal statistics provide a deficient guide to both the level of crime and trends in criminal behaviour. There has been a massive increase in the amount of statistical information promulgated about crime in the past few years. This reflects in part the greater sophistication in statistical techniques, but is mostly a consequence of the growing political interest in the criminal justice system and an accompanying call for greater accountability and openness. However, there are some facts that appear incontrovertible from all measurements of crime in England and Wales.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter describes the law on attempt, conspiracy, incitement, and the new offences of encouraging or assisting crime. Attempt is possibly the most direct of the inchoate offences. A person must have performed acts ‘more than merely preparatory’ to the commission of the offence. Prosecutors may prosecute someone for conspiracy, although the principle for inchoate offences is frequently early prevention of crime. The Serious Crime Act 2007 abolished incitement as a common law offence and also altered the common law offence of incitement with three new offences.

Chapter

Matthew Williams and David Wall

This chapter examines the nature of cybercrime and its implications for criminology. It is organized as follows. The first part traces the evolution of the Internet as an environment for the emergence of cybercrime. The second considers the various conflicting definitional problems of cybercrime and offers a method of resolving them. The third part outlines the problems with measuring cybercrime before providing an indication of the scale of the problem. The fourth part briefly explores how those problems are being resolved. The fifth part looks at the governance and regulation of cybercrime, while the final part provides an overview of the various theoretical explanations.

Chapter

Pamela Davies

This chapter explores the parameters of the study of the crime victim, and the history and scope of the academic subdiscipline within criminology known as victimology. It discusses victimological perspectives; researching victims of crime; and the extent, nature of, and risks to criminal victimization. The final section examines public policy and practice, considering how and why ‘victim’ is a problematic concept in the context of compensation. It problematizes a number of taken-for-granted victimological concepts, such as victimization and crime victim. This section also shows that key concepts, such as victim precipitation, culpability, provocation, and ideal victim connect to particular ways of constructing the crime victim and understanding victimization.

Chapter

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

This chapter discusses two classes of international crimes — torture and aggression — that have repeatedly drawn international attention and condemnation but have not been adjudicated as stand-alone crimes. It begins by considering the different reasons for the treatment — in practice, if not always in theory — of these two crimes as outside the ‘core crimes’ involving the most heinous offences: war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. This is followed by discussions of torture as a discrete crime; torture as a war crime and a crime against humanity; the emergence of the notion of the crime of aggression and its falling into lethargy; the elements of the crime of aggression; the need to disentangle criminal liability of individuals from state responsibility; and whether conspiracy to wage aggression is criminalized.

Chapter

Alistair Fraser and Dick Hobbs

This chapter examines a range of criminological classifications for urban criminal groups, covering both youthful and adult-oriented collaborations. The chapter provides a critical overview of the following categorizations: gangs; subcultures; neighbourhood crime groups; professional crime; the underworld; and organized crime. Debates relating to each are introduced. While criminological approaches to youthful groups have a clear history, from the ‘Chicago School’ to the ‘Birmingham School’, perspectives on adult groups are less solid and more interdisciplinary. In both cases, the chapter argues that criminological classifications have struggled to capture the complexities brought on by the changing nature of the urban political economy. The chapter concludes by introducing a critical perspective that problematizes criminological categorizations of urban criminal collaborations.

Chapter

Penny Green and Tony Ward

This chapter discusses the concept of state crime and proposes a distinction between ‘core state crimes’ of organized murder, rape, theft, etc., and more ambiguous criminal activity. Focusing mainly on core state crimes, it reviews some of the main approaches to explaining state violence and corruption. It then explores the methods used by social scientists to study state crime. While ethnographic fieldwork is the central method of research, it is complemented by a range of other sources of quantitative and qualitative data. These include, for example, the analysis of social media content and satellite imagery.

Chapter

This chapter examines the material and mental aspects of four offences that are directly criminalized by international law: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and aggression. The discussions also cover some of the general principles of liability and defences that are of particular relevance to international crimes. Firstly, joint criminal enterprise, co-perpetration, command responsibility, and the defence of obedience to superior orders are considered. The chapter then looks at international and national prosecution of international crimes, including the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials, the International Criminal Tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and the International Criminal Court. As prosecution is not the only, or predominant, response to international crimes, the chapter concludes with a discussion of alternatives and complements to prosecution, such as amnesties, and truth and reconciliation commissions.