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Chapter

Catherine Barnard and Steve Peers

This introductory chapter begins with a consideration of what purpose EU regulation serves and why the EU should regulate. This is a way of introducing students to the main themes of the book. These can be introduced in the form of two questions: ‘What should the EU be doing?’ and ‘How should the EU go about doing it?’ The first question is linked to the concept of ‘output legitimacy’, that is, the EU proving its value to the public by showing that it is effective in contributing to the achievement of objectives which have wide public support (e.g. economic growth and job creation). The second question is linked to the concept of ‘input legitimacy’, that is, how fair and democratic is the process by which the EU takes decisions.

Chapter

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the concept of authorship, as it is understood in copyright law, as well as the first ownership of copyright and the various exceptions to this rule. It begins by discussing the author of a work as defined in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 before elaborating on the task of determining who the author of a work is. Authorship of literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works and of entrepreneurial works is then considered, along with joint authorship. The chapter also looks at exceptions to first ownership, including works created by employees, those governed by Crown copyright or made under the direction or control of Parliament, and commissioned works. Finally, it analyses the issue of harmonization with respect to authorship and the position of employed authors.

Chapter

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the criteria used to determine whether a work is to be protected by copyright. More specifically, it considers the requirements for copyright protection: the work must be recorded in a material form; must be ‘original’; should be sufficiently connected to the UK to qualify for protection under UK law; and should not be excluded from protection on public policy grounds. The originality requirement applies to literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works (authorial works), not to entrepreneurial works (sound recordings, films, broadcasts, and typographical arrangements). The common characteristics of originality are also discussed, along with British conception of originality, harmonization of ‘originality’ in Europe, differences between British and European standards on originality, and the issue of whether the UK can-and does-protect non-original works. The chapter concludes by focusing on subject matter excluded from copyright protection.

Book

Titles in the Casebook on series provide readers with a comprehensive selection of case law extracts for their studies. Extracts have been chosen from a wide range of historical and contemporary cases to illustrate the reasoning processes of the courts and to show how legal principles are developed. Todd & Watt’s Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts provides an essential reference source. This tenth edition contains an impressive range of relevant and interesting case law, statutory material, academic writing, and official proposals for law reform. The book is composed of a number of parts. The book starts with an introduction to equity and trusts. The next part covers the creation and recognition of trusts. The third part considers the regulation of trusts. The part that follows looks at trustees and third parties. The final part looks at maxims, doctrines, and remedies.

Chapter

This chapter outlines the role of public inquiries within the broader context of administrative justice. The focus of this chapter is ad hoc inquires established under the royal prerogative or the Inquiries Act 2005 to consider a matter of public concern. Such inquiries fulfil several purposes, and supplement other forms of accountability. The chapter then discusses the key features of public inquiries, including the importance of the terms of reference which establish the remit of the inquiry. The next important question is the choice of chair or panel, and in particular as to whether a senior judge should be used to chair the inquiry. There are some circumstances when the use of a judicial chair is perhaps less appropriate, including when the inquiry is likely to veer into matters of political controversy. Other considerations include whether inquiries should sit in private or public, and the impact of an inquiries report once it has been released to the public.

Chapter

International society is first and foremost a society of individual sovereign states. However, states are by no means the only relevant actors in international law. In fact, one of the consequences of the post-1945 expansion of international law into areas that had traditionally been of limited international interest has been the increasing legal importance of a variety of non-state actors, most notably international organizations and individuals. This chapter introduces the various actors in the international legal system that possess rights, powers and obligations in international law. It provides a thorough presentation of statehood and the criteria for the creation of new states, and briefly discusses the (limited) legal significance of recognition. It discusses the modes by which a state can acquire title to new territory; the issues of state succession and state extinction; and the legal personality of territorial entities other than states, international organizations, individuals and additional actors in the international legal system.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the issue of formality for the creation of trusts. It covers the formality requirements relate to settling property on trust; prescribed form for declaring property subject to a trust; formalities from general dealings with property arising in the creation of trusts; formality required for dispositions of equitable interests; litigation arising from the meaning of ‘disposition’; the Vandervell litigation; disposition and specifically enforceable oral contracts for transferring subsisting equitable interests; gifts that are made donatio mortis causa and the rule in Strong v Bird.

Chapter

International society is first and foremost a society of individual sovereign states. However, states are by no means the only relevant actors in international law. In fact, one of the consequences of the post-1945 expansion of international law into areas that had traditionally been of limited international interest has been the increasing legal importance of a variety of non-state actors, most notably international organizations and individuals. This chapter introduces the various actors in the international legal system that possess rights, powers and obligations in international law. It provides a thorough presentation of statehood and the criteria for the creation of new states, and briefly discusses the (limited) legal significance of recognition. It discusses the modes by which a state can acquire title to new territory; the issues of state succession and state extinction; and the legal personality of territorial entities other than states, international organizations, individuals and additional actors in the international legal system.

Chapter

This chapter explores how the English land law land registration system works in practice. The land registration system achieves three goals. The first is as a method of controlling the way in which rights are created. The second is in terms of managing the effect of such rights, once they have been created. The third is as a means to regulate the interactions between different proprietary rights which exist in relation to the same piece of land. The chapter considers the first two functions: mode of rights creation and effect of rights creation. It then looks at what happens when these functions go wrong within the system — how do the principles of registered land interact with the inevitable reality of both human error and human creativity? In answering this issue, the chapter considers how the register is rectified and altered. Finally, it examines potential reforms, including those proposed by the Law Commission, and the possibility of the advent of e-conveyancing. The Law Commission has now begun the process of bringing about reform of the Land Registration Act 2002 to allow for the smoother operation of the registration system in cases of error.

Chapter

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the criteria used to determine whether a work is to be protected by copyright. More specifically, it considers the requirements for copyright protection: the work must be recorded in a material form; must be ‘original’; should be sufficiently connected to the UK to qualify for protection under UK law; and should not be excluded from protection on public policy grounds. There is discussion of the traditional British conception of originality, harmonization of ‘originality’ in Europe, analysis of differences between British and European standards on originality, and the issue of whether the UK can—and does—protect non-original works. The chapter concludes by focusing on subject matter excluded from copyright protection.