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Chapter

T C Hartley

This chapter focuses on the preliminary reference procedure, wherein the court a quo decides whether the reference should be made, and only specific issues are referred to the European Court. Once it has decided these, the European Court remits the case to the national court for a final decision. This procedure puts the European Court in a weaker position than would be normal for the supreme court in a federation. It suggests that the national courts are not subordinate to the European Court, but co-equal: the relationship is not one of hierarchy, but of co-operation. The discussions cover the provisions which may be referred; which courts are covered; hypothetical questions and contrived proceedings; when a reference should be made; the procedure for making a reference; and the effects of preliminary rulings.

Chapter

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, Carla Buckley, and Krešimir Kamber

This chapter discusses the organization and functions of the European Court of Human Rights. Topics covered include the composition of the Court; the election of judges; the roles of the Court Chambers and the Grand Chamber; pilot judgments; reform of the Court; and the future of the Court.

Chapter

Bernadette Rainey, Elizabeth Wicks, and Andclare Ovey

This chapter examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) on the right to a fair trial in criminal and civil cases, explaining that Article 6 of ECHR holds that the Strasbourg Court has no jurisdiction to reopen national legal proceedings or to substitute its own findings of fact for the conclusions of national courts. It discusses issues concerning the overall requirements of a fair hearing, right of access to court, and the extraterritorial effect of Article 6.

Chapter

This chapter examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) on the right to a fair trial in criminal and civil cases, explaining that Article 6 of ECHR holds that the Strasbourg Court has no jurisdiction to reopen national legal proceedings or to substitute its own findings of fact for the conclusions of national courts. The chapter examines the interpretation by the Strasbourg Court of the protections provided by Article 6 in the extensive jurisprudence on this Article and discusses issues concerning the overall requirements of a fair hearing, right of access to court, and the extraterritorial effect of Article 6.

Book

Lisa Mountford and Martin Hannibal

Criminal Litigation offers a guide to the areas of criminal litigation covered in the Legal Practice Course. Making use of realistic case studies backed up by online documentation, the text combines theory with practical considerations and encourages a focus on putting knowledge into a practical context. The volume covers all procedural and evidential issues that arise in criminal cases. The more complex areas of criminal litigation are examined using diagrams, flowcharts, and examples, while potential changes in the law are highlighted. This edition has been fully revised to reflect the most recent law and practice in all aspects of criminal litigation.

Book

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

Criminal Litigation offers a guide to the areas of criminal litigation covered in the Legal Practice Course. Making use of realistic case studies backed up by online documentation, the text combines theory with practical considerations and encourages a focus on putting knowledge into a practical context. The volume covers all procedural and evidential issues that arise in criminal cases. The more complex areas of criminal litigation are examined using diagrams, flowcharts, and examples, while potential changes in the law are highlighted. This edition has been fully revised to reflect the most recent law and practice in all aspects of criminal litigation.

Chapter

The civil courts perform the important function of resolving disputes that cannot be resolved by agreement between the parties. This introductory chapter briefly sets out the book’s focus, namely the mechanics of how legal and equitable rights are asserted, determined, and enforced through the civil courts. It then discusses the legal profession, lawyers’ duties, initial instructions, confidentiality and conflict of interest, pre-action correspondence, and the main stages in court proceedings.

Chapter

The civil courts perform the important function of resolving disputes that cannot be resolved by agreement between the parties. This introductory chapter briefly sets out the book’s focus, namely the mechanics of how legal and equitable rights are asserted, determined, and enforced through the civil courts. It then discusses the legal profession, lawyers’ duties, initial instructions, confidentiality and conflict of interest, pre-action correspondence, and the main stages in court proceedings.

Chapter

The civil courts perform the important function of resolving disputes that cannot be resolved by agreement between the parties. This introductory chapter briefly sets out the book’s focus, namely the mechanics of how legal and equitable rights are asserted, determined, and enforced through the civil courts. It then discusses the legal profession, lawyers’ duties, initial instructions, confidentiality and conflict of interest, pre-action correspondence, and the main stages in court proceedings.

Chapter

Where a prosecution is commenced against a child aged 10 to 13 years or against a young person aged 14 to 17 years, the general rule is that he will be tried and sentenced in the youth court. The youth court adopts more informal and less adversarial procedures to deal with the needs and vulnerabilities of young defendants. However, there are exceptional situations (grave offences and dangerous offenders) where they will be tried in the Crown Court or when jointly charged with an adult sometimes in the adult magistrates’ court. This chapter discusses the rules for deciding where a young person is to be tried; the rules for trying a young person in the Crown Court; the rules for trying a young person in the adult magistrates’ court; the young defendant’s right to court bail; and the procedure in the youth court.

Chapter

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

Where a prosecution is commenced against a child aged 10 to 13 years or against a young person aged 14 to 17 years, the general rule is that he will be tried and sentenced in the youth court. The youth court adopts more informal and less adversarial procedures to deal with the needs and vulnerabilities of young defendants. However, there are exceptional situations (grave offences and dangerous offenders) where they will be tried in the Crown Court or when jointly charged with an adult sometimes in the adult magistrates’ court. This chapter discusses the rules for deciding where a young person is to be tried; the rules for trying a young person in the Crown Court; the rules for trying a young person in the adult magistrates’ court; the young defendant’s right to court bail; and the procedure in the youth court.

Chapter

Jonathan Hill

This chapter addresses the English court's jurisdiction other than in family law matters and excluding a few other kinds of proceedings. There are two types of claim which may be commenced in England: claims in personam and admiralty claims in rem. A claim inpersonam is one in which the claimant seeks a judgment requiring the defendant to pay money, deliver property or do, or refrain from doing, some other act. A claimant who wishes to commence proceedings in personam must be able to serve a claim form on the defendant — either in England or abroad. Admiralty proceedings in rem are directed against property, usually a ship. A typical case is where the claimant has a claim against a ship-owner in respect of his ship — for example, where the claimant's cargo has been damaged as a result of the negligent navigation of the vessel. The remainder of the chapter discusses the bases of jurisdiction in personam; declining jurisdiction and staying proceedings; provisional measure designed to maintain the status quo pending the outcome of the dispute between the parties; and restraining foreign proceedings.

Chapter

This chapter deals with international criminal procedure, focusing on the International Criminal Court (ICC). It first introduces international criminal procedure and the various parties involved in the process (judges, prosecutors, suspects or accused persons, and witnesses and victims). It then examines the pre-trial phase of proceedings, including criminal investigation, the decision to prosecute, and the role of the document specifying the charges (called an ‘indictment’ by some courts and national systems). Next, the chapter provides an overview of the trial phase and examines the role of guilty pleas, evidence (and its pre-trial disclosure), and the conduct of trial proceedings.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the right to a fair trial. It first examines the obligations imposed on States by Art. 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in relation to this right. It then focuses on a particular threat to a fair trial, in the form of the reporting of imminent or current legal proceedings, which may raise a risk that the outcome of those proceedings will be adversely affected. This is dealt with in English law primarily by the offence of contempt of court. The final section deals with a particular type of contempt related to the extent to which a court can compel a journalist to disclose his or her source.

Chapter

17. Children and Local Authorities:  

Care and Supervision Proceedings

N V Lowe and G Douglas

The Children Act 1989 places considerable importance on local authorities working in partnership with families and the avoidance wherever possible of court proceedings. However, the Act also makes provision, in the form of care and supervision orders, for compulsory measures to be taken to safeguard and promote children's welfare. This chapter focuses on care and supervision orders. It covers the initiation of proceedings; the threshold criteria, which refers to conditions set out by Section 31(2) that must be satisfied before a care or supervision order may be made; the ‘welfare stage’, where the court must, pursuant to s 1(1), regard the welfare of the child as the paramount consideration; tackling delay in care proceedings; court orders; appeals; and discharge of care orders and discharge and variation of supervision orders.

Chapter

This chapter considers the public funding of criminal proceedings and the early stages of the criminal litigation process. Topics discussed include legal aid as a human right; pre-charge advice and assistance; funded representation in court; representation orders; the interests of justice test; means testing and its application to cases tried in the magistrates’ court; the means test as applied to cases triable on indictment; work that can be done under a representation order; acquitted defendants and Defendants’ Costs Order; the future of public funding; and preparing for the first appearance before the magistrates’ court.

Chapter

This chapter considers the public funding of criminal proceedings and the early stages of the criminal litigation process. Topics discussed include legal aid as a human right; pre-charge advice and assistance; funded representation in court; representation orders; the interests of justice test; means testing and its application to cases tried in the magistrates’ court; the means test as applied to cases triable on indictment; work that can be done under a representation order; acquitted defendants and Defendants’ Costs Order; the future of public funding; and preparing for the first appearance before the magistrates’ court.

Chapter

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

The right of defendants to appeal against conviction or sentence is normally regarded as a fundamental human right. At present this right is laid down in numerous international treaties on human rights, as well as in the Statutes of international courts. The notion and purpose of appellate proceedings vary in national systems. Subject to a number of specifications and exceptions, in civil law countries, that is countries of Romano-Germanic legal tradition, these proceedings amount largely to a retrial by a court of appeal. In contrast, in most common law countries appellate proceedings do not lead to a retrial. Appeals courts, which do not have any jury, do not review facts, but decide on the basis of the trial record. In international criminal proceedings neither the common law system nor the civil law model have been upheld. Rather, a mixed system has been accepted, which is discussed in this chapter.

Chapter

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter first discusses how the courts have devised a code of fair administrative procedure based on doctrines which are an essential part of any system of administrative justice. It then explains the concept of administrative justice and natural justice; natural justice in the common law; the European Convention and natural justice in administrative proceedings; and the curative effect of access to a court of ‘full jurisdiction’.

Chapter

This chapter begins with a discussion of court selection. The issue of proceedings, and to some extent the choice of court, is increasingly being streamlined, with the procedure for County Court money claims and bulk claims being moved online. For the larger multi-track cases, however, the High Court and the County Court have concurrent jurisdiction for many types of proceedings. The chapter then explains the issuance of the claim form, which marks the start of formal litigation; the service of proceedings, i.e. the formal process by which the defendant is notified of the claim; the claimant's selection of the court in which the claim is brought; and the court's allocation of the case to a particular ‘track’. The final section deals with the directions questionnaire (form N180), which should not be seen as a formality but as a key step in defining how the case should move forward.