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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

42. Interim Injunctions  

This chapter discusses the rules on interim injunctions. Interim injunctions are temporary orders made with the purpose of regulating the position between the parties to an action pending trial. Such an order is particularly useful where there is evidence that the respondent’s alleged wrongdoing will cause irreparable damage to the applicant’s interests in the period between issue of process and trial. The chapter covers judges able to grant injunctions; pre-action applications for interim injunctions; applications during proceedings; principles for the granting of interim injunctions; defences and bars to relief that may be raised on an application for an interim injunction; interim injunction orders; and effect of not applying for interim relief.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

44. Search Orders  

This chapter discusses the rules for search orders. A search order is a bundle of interim orders which require the respondent to admit another party to premises for the purpose of preserving evidence which might otherwise be destroyed or concealed by the respondent. Search orders are principally, but not exclusively, used in intellectual property claims against defendants who are likely to destroy incriminating evidence rather than disclose it voluntarily under standard disclosure.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

12. Remedies  

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the remedies that may be granted when administrative action is deemed unlawful. It begins with an overview of the provisions of Senior Courts Act 1981 and goes on to discuss the role of injunctions in public law, the availability of interim injunctions, and the question of whether injunctive relief may issue against the Crown. It then considers the role of declarations in public law, along with relator proceedings brought by the Attorney-General on behalf of a member of the public or an agency in order to obtain an injunction or declaration. In particular, the chapter explores quashing orders, the most commonly sought remedy in judicial review proceedings, as well as prohibiting orders and mandatory orders. A number of relevant cases are cited throughout the chapter, including R v. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, ex parte Monsanto plc [1999] QB 1161.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

43. Freezing Injunctions  

This chapter discusses the rules on freezing injunctions. A freezing injunction is an interim order restraining a party from removing assets located within the jurisdiction out of the country, or from dealing with assets whether they are located within the jurisdiction or not. The order is usually restricted to assets not exceeding the value of the claim. The main purpose of a freezing injunction is to prevent the injustice of a defendant’s assets being salted away so as to deprive the claimant of the fruits of any judgment that may be obtained.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

45. Norwich Pharmacal and Related Disclosure Orders  

This chapter considers a number of other special forms of disclosure orders, the best known of which is the Norwich Pharmacal order. Norwich Pharmacal orders are primarily used for finding the identity of an unknown potential defendant. They can only be sought against a person who facilitated and got ‘mixed up’ in the wrongdoing. Norwich Pharmacal orders therefore cannot be made against ‘mere witnesses’. Pre-action disclosure orders bring forward the time when disclosure of documents takes place to the period before a claim is issued. Disclosure against non-parties enables the court to order a witness to produce documents in advance of the trial, thus avoiding adjournments when documents are produced at the last minute at trial.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

23. Interim Applications  

An order is a formal decision by the court granting a remedy or relief to a party, usually in the stages before the final determination of a case. Interim orders are sometimes made after the substantive hearing of a claim, and sometimes the relief granted at trial includes various types of orders. This chapter discusses pre-action interim remedies; obligation to apply early; applications with and without notice; interim hearings; summary determination of interim costs; and varying or revoking interim orders.

Chapter

Cover Bromley's Family Law

18. Care and Supervision  

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

The Children Act 1989 places considerable importance on local authorities working in partnership with families and the avoidance wherever possible of court proceedings. However, the Act also makes provision, in the form of care and supervision orders, for compulsory measures to be taken to safeguard and promote children’s welfare. This chapter focuses on care and supervision orders. It covers the initiation of proceedings; the threshold criteria, which refers to conditions set out by s 31(2) that must be satisfied before a care or supervision order may be made; the ‘welfare stage’, where the court must, pursuant to s 1(1), regard the welfare of the child as the paramount consideration; tackling delay in care proceedings; court orders; appeals; and discharge of care orders and discharge and variation of supervision orders. The chapter ends by discussing the position of children in local authority care, focusing on the critical issue of contact with children in care.

Chapter

Cover Family Law Concentrate

9. International parent–child abduction  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on child abduction whereby a parent takes a child out of England and Wales. It looks at two forms of parent–child abduction—removal without consent, and retention once consent has expired—and considers methods of preventing child abduction, including port alerts and court orders. The chapter also discusses the role of the International Child Abduction and Contact Unit (ICACU) in the recovery of an abducted child under the Child Abduction and Custody Act 1985, as long as the child is in a country that is signatory to the Hague Convention 1980, Hague Convention 1996, or European Convention. It concludes by considering extradition of the guilty parent to England and Wales.

Chapter

Cover Hayes & Williams' Family Law

4. Financial remedies on divorce and dissolution  

This chapter examines the legal framework which determines the distribution of money and property between spouses or civil partners on divorce or dissolution. The chapter considers the background to the current law before providing an in-depth analysis of the relevant legislative framework under the MCA 1973 and important case law guiding the courts’ exercise of discretion, including in respect of pensions and the matrimonial home. The chapter also considers the enforceability of, and weight given to, separation agreements and pre-nuptial agreements.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

48. Litigation  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter introduces some of the more important aspects of intellectual property litigation. It begins by considering who can bring proceedings and who can be sued with respect to infringement before discussing how evidence is obtained and preserved, with particular reference to disclosure orders and search orders. In addition, the chapter looks at presumptions that alter the normal burden of proof; unjustified threats of infringement; special courts and tribunals that deal with the technical nature of intellectual property litigation; parallel proceedings and the problems that they raise; the use of experts in litigation; and jurisdictional issues and conflicts of law. Finally, it examines alternative dispute resolution as an approach to resolving disputes concerning intellectual property.

Chapter

Cover Sentencing and Punishment

11. Court orders for young offenders  

This chapter focuses on the ways and the extent to which the courts deal differently with children and young people under 18 who commit criminal offences or behave antisocially. It therefore covers the new criminal behaviour orders and injunctions as well as parenting orders. It then reviews the sentencing options available to the Youth and Crown Courts in dealing with young offenders, and examines the current practices and policy trends in relation to both community and custodial penalties for young offenders. In particular, the chapter covers the YRO (Youth Rehabilitation Order) and the Detention and Training order. It highlights the continuing deficiencies in the care of young people detained in young offender institutions and secure training centres, especially in regard to methods of restraint, and examines the advantages and limitations of using children’s rights and human rights to ensure more appropriate treatment of children and young people who commit offences.