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Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

20. Making and managing terrorism and counter-terrorism: the view from criminology  

Martin Innes and Michael Levi

This chapter examines how ideas and concepts derived from criminology can inform our understandings of terrorism and counter-terrorism in insightful and innovative ways. Terrorism is designed as communicative violence that seeks to work by sending messages intended to influence the views of a wider public. The analysis attends to how: terrorism has been constructed as a social and political problem in the contemporary era; the role that has been attributed to extremism and processes of radicalization; and, the extent these influence the framing and conduct of counter-terrorism responses. The particular perspective set out accents how terrorist campaigns and counter-terrorist responses routinely develop in interaction with each other.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

13. Terrorism and the politics of fear  

Frank Furedi

This chapter provides a general introduction to the subject of terrorism and poses a series of important questions about how to define terrorism against a backdrop of contemporary fears in a risk-averse society. It begins by casting doubt on simple, typically narrow, definitions of terrorism, before then going on to deconstruct the climate of fear currently surrounding the majority of research in this area. The chapter looks at current counter-terrorism measures and recently invoked anti-terrorist legislation. It argues that, if governments continue to adopt a cavalier attitude towards civil liberties, they face the risk of playing into the very hands of those who promote and perpetrate political violence.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

30. Making and managing terrorism and counter-terrorism: The view from criminology  

Martin Innes and Michael Levi

This chapter examines how ideas and concepts derived from criminology can inform our understandings of terrorism and counter-terrorism in insightful and innovative ways. Terrorism is designed as communicative violence that seeks to work by sending messages intended to influence the views of a wider public. The analysis attends to how terrorism has been constructed as a social and political problem in the contemporary era; the role attributed to extremism and processes of radicalization; and the extent to which these influence the framing and conduct of counter-terrorism responses, including financing terrorism. The particular perspective accents how terrorist campaigns and counter-terrorist responses routinely develop in interaction with each other.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

26. Anti-terrorism law and human rights  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of la and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter considers the application of human rights in the special circumstances of the threat of terrorism and counter-terrorism measures taken in the UK. It considers the compatibility of the Terrorism Act 2000, and other subsequent measures, with human rights. This includes matters such as the definition of terrorism, police powers under the Act (such as random stop and search), and measures, such as TPIMs, to control terrorist suspects. The impact of these measures on the right to liberty and on private life are important themes. The chapter also considers the effect of such measures on the right to a fair hearing (in Articles 5 and 6). These special powers are often controversial giving rise, as they do, to important tensions between the rule of law and the duty on states to uphold the safety and security of the population.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

29. Terrorism  

Martin Scheinin

This chapter first addresses the question of whether terrorism constitutes a violation of human rights, or whether the notion of human rights violations can only be applied to action by states, and then considers challenges to the applicability of human rights law in the fight against terrorism, particularly since 9/11. It focuses on the notion of terrorism, and in particular the risks posed to human rights protection by vague or over-inclusive definitions of terrorism. The main section of the chapter deals with some of the major challenges posed by counter-terrorism measures to substantive human rights protections. It is argued that the unprecedented post-9/11 wave of counter-terrorism laws and measures that infringed upon human rights was a unique situation, and that governments and intergovernmental organizations are realizing that full compliance with human rights in the fight against terrorism is not only morally and legally correct but is also the most effective way of combating terrorism in the long term.