1-20 of 27 Results

  • Keyword: costs x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

46. Costs  

This chapter focuses on legal costs. It discusses the two main principles for deciding which party should pay the costs of an application or of the whole proceedings; the rule that costs follow the event; range of possible costs orders; interim costs orders; indemnity principle; basis of quantification; proportionality; summary and detailed assessments; fast track fixed costs; fixed and scale costs; costs and track allocation; publicly funded litigants; pro bono costs orders; costs against non-parties; and wasted costs orders.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

25. Costs Orders and Assessment  

This chapter focuses on the management of legal costs. In principle, when assessing costs on a standard basis the court considers the receiving party's last approved or agreed budget, not departing from it unless there is good reason. In several cases the courts have indicated that an approved budget should normally be followed. However, an amount spent will not necessarily be reasonable and proportionate just because it was included in an approved budget. The chapter then discusses orders for costs, covering the principles for costs orders, powers relating to costs, and costs at the interim stage. The final section deals with quantifying costs, including fixed costs and agreed costs, as well as the court's summary assessment of costs and detailed assessments.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

47. Qualified One-Way Costs Shifting  

Qualified one-way costs shifting (QOCS) provides costs protection to claimants in personal injuries claims. If the claimant wins, the defendant should be ordered to pay the claimant’s costs in the usual way. However, if the claimant loses, under QOCS, while the claimant remains liable to pay its own lawyers’ costs, and may be ordered to pay the successful defendant’s costs, the claimant will be protected against actually having to pay those costs to the defendant. This chapter discusses cases where QOCS applies; the effects of QOCS; and loss of QOCS protection.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

17. Costs Capping and Protection  

Costs capping orders limit the amount of costs a party may be ordered to pay to its opponent. This chapter will consider the general rules governing costs capping in CPR, Part 3. When it comes into force, there will be a parallel statutory costs capping scheme for judicial review claims in the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015, ss 88 and 89. In addition, there are a number of judge-made costs protection orders, namely: Beddoe orders; protective costs orders; Aarhus Convention cases; and costs limitation orders.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

8. The Sanctions for Refusing to Engage in ADR Processes  

This chapter assesses the possible sanctions for refusing to engage in alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes. The court will look at whether a party complied with the requirements of Practice Direction—Pre-Action Conduct and the Pre-Action protocols in making decisions about costs. If a party unreasonably refuses to consider ADR, before issue, after issue, or after judgment and pending appeal, they can be penalized in costs. If a successful party unreasonably refuses ADR, they may be deprived of some or all of their costs or ordered to pay some or all of the losing party's costs, including costs on an indemnity basis. Pulling out of an ADR process at the eleventh hour is likely to be judged unreasonable conduct and may result in an adverse costs order. Moreover, the court will not consider ‘without prejudice’ material in considering costs, unless privilege is waived by all the parties to the dispute, or the correspondence is explicitly written on the basis that it is ‘without prejudice except as to costs’.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

1. The Growing Focus on ‘Effective’ Litigation  

This chapter briefly sets out the purpose of the present text, namely to outline how a civil dispute may be dealt with in the most effective way, using litigation in a modern context. The text offers a sound guide to all the rules and principles that are most important at each stage of the litigation process, and what skills and practical considerations are relevant. The chapter then considers changes relating to the litigation process brought about by Sir Rupert Jackson' Review of Civil Litigation Costs: Final Report published in January 2010. This is followed by discussions of the meaning of ‘effective’ litigation, the overriding objective of litigation, the changing legal environment, and the time and financial aspects of litigation.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

26. Security for Costs  

The question of who pays for the costs of a claim is generally not determined until the claim is finally disposed of, whether by consent, interim process, or trial. However, an order for security for costs can be made against a party in the position of a claimant. Once security is given it may be retained, subject to the court’s discretion, pending an appeal. An order for security for costs usually requires the claimant to pay money into court as security for the payment of any costs order that may eventually be made in favour of the defendant, and staying the claim until the security is provided. On the application three issues arise: (i) whether one of the conditions for ordering security for costs is satisfied; (ii) if so, whether, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, it would be just to exercise the court’s discretion in favour of making the order; and (iii) if so, how much security should be provided. This chapter considers each of these three issues. It begins by looking at the procedure for making the application and the capacity of the respondent to the application.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

18. Costs Management and Budgeting  

This chapter discusses the issue of costs management in litigation. The problem with overall cost is central to many of the current challenges to litigation. It is in the best interests of litigation as a process, and of litigation lawyers who want to maintain the role of litigation, to ensure that litigation becomes as cost-effective as possible. To improve cost-effectiveness, costs need to become more transparent, more manageable as the costs of the case build, with end results as to costs that are more predictable. The chapter discusses the role of costs budgets; orders for costs at an interim hearing; options for parties in terms of practical costs protection; and wasted costs orders against legal representatives.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

6. Financing Litigation  

This chapter focuses on funding options for litigation. Expense is one of the biggest issues relating to litigation. The high cost of litigation has perhaps been tolerated to some extent out of respect for the expertise of lawyers and because of problems in finding a consensus on how litigation is best funded. The detailed work of the Jackson Review of Civil Litigation Costs has provided a strong basis for development, and there have been numerous expressions of judicial concern with regard to the high level of costs. The chapter begins by considering the sources of legal expense, the parties that bear the expense, and the problems that arise with regard to the expense of litigations. It then discusses funding options for litigation, including self-funding, insurance, conditional fee agreements, damage-based agreements, third party funding, and public funding. It also presents options for funding alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

9. Recovery of ADR Costs in Litigation  

This chapter addresses the recovery of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) costs in litigation. The court have power to make an order that the costs of interim applications in connection with ADR should be borne by one party if that party has acted unreasonably, otherwise the usual order will be ‘costs in the case’. If the parties embark on an ADR process and make a clear agreement as to their respective liabilities for the costs of that process, the court will not look behind it. Meanwhile, if the parties make no agreement about the costs of an ADR process, the court can determine liability for the costs of the ADR process. If the parties reach agreement on the main issues by an ADR process and agree that ADR costs should be determined by the court, the court is likely to make no order for costs (meaning each party will bear their own costs) unless it can determine, without trying the case, who would have won at trial.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

18. Redundancy  

This chapter examines the statutory regulation of redundancy, together with the extent to which a statutory redundancy payment offers sufficient compensation for the loss of the employee’s job, and the financial and emotional disruption caused by the need to search for other employment. It considers other protections available to the employee who is about to be, or has been, made redundant. It then assesses the evolution of the present statutory regime and whether it strikes an appropriate balance between the personal financial costs and adverse social costs shouldered by UK taxpayers and the economy on the one hand, and the costs to the productive economy and the labour market on the other. The alternatives to redundancy are also addressed.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

4. ADR, Settlement, and Part 36 Offers  

In recent years alternative dispute resolution (ADR) has evolved from being a fallback in relation to litigation into an important alternative that may be the preferred option in some cases. This chapter outlines the interface between litigation and ADR, and puts litigation into the context of settlement options. ADR is only a complete alternative to litigation where a full adjudicative option such as arbitration or expert determination is used. In most disputes it is more likely that a case will move between litigation and ADR processes, or be subject to both at the same time where an offer has been made and remains open, but the litigation process continues. The chapter discusses the main types of ADR and their fit with litigation; framing an attempt to settle; drawing up terms of settlement; and making Part 36 offers, especially when costs are a major concern in litigation.

Chapter

Cover Sentencing and Punishment

1. Developing penal policy  

This chapter focuses on key questions in penal policy, including justice, risk management, and human rights. It also considers the principal factors which shape the development of penal policy. Notably, these are political imperatives, economic influences, and penological and criminological principles, as well as public opinion and the media, which have become much more influential since the early 1990s. Recent penal policy developments to highlight significant trends and problems are discussed, including the impact of the pandemic. The chapter concludes by focusing on the management of sex offenders and providing a case study and discussion questions for further reflection on the issues.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

16. Costs Management  

Costs management refers to the procedures used by the courts to manage the steps to be taken in civil proceedings while also managing the costs to be incurred by the parties in taking those steps to ensure that litigation is conducted at proportionate cost. This chapter discusses the elements of costs management; cases governed by costs management; costs management orders; costs budgets and case management; judicial control of costs budgets; and impact on costs orders.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

23. Interim Applications  

An order is a formal decision by the court granting a remedy or relief to a party, usually in the stages before the final determination of a case. Interim orders are sometimes made after the substantive hearing of a claim, and sometimes the relief granted at trial includes various types of orders. This chapter discusses pre-action interim remedies; obligation to apply early; applications with and without notice; interim hearings; summary determination of interim costs; and varying or revoking interim orders.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

30. Arbitration Awards and Orders  

This chapter assesses four different types of awards and orders that are available to arbitrators. Procedural orders provide procedural directions and measures designed to preserve evidence or the subject-matter of the dispute (conservatory measures) while an arbitration is proceeding. Meanwhile, interim awards and awards on different issues dispose of one or more of the substantive issues in the arbitration, leaving the other issues to be decided later. Final awards dispose of the arbitration, while costs awards provide for the payment of the costs incurred in the arbitration between the parties. Usually, once an order or award is made, it is binding on the parties. Most sets of institutional arbitral rules include provision for parties making suggestions for the correction of clerical mistakes in orders and awards. Lawyers also need to advise their clients on the meaning and effect of the tribunal's decision, and where there is further work to be done, to take the client's instructions on the next steps.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

4. Funding ADR Procedures  

This chapter discusses the issue of funding alternative dispute resolution (ADR) procedures. Costs are a major motivation for undertaking ADR, but the costs position can be quite complex. Indeed, the separate elements of costs must all be considered. It is government policy to make more use of ADR, including online ADR, for lower-value cases so that dispute resolution is cost effective. Although a process like arbitration can be expensive, most ADR processes are relatively inexpensive, and information on costs is quite easily available from ADR providers. Ultimately, it is important for the lawyer to make an overall analysis of the financial position and risks to assist the client in taking an informed decision about litigation and ADR options. Costs may be considered as part of a negotiated or mediated settlement.

Chapter

Cover Environmental Law

10. Access to environmental justice and the role of the courts  

Stuart Bell, Donald McGillivray, Ole W. Pedersen, Emma Lees, and Elen Stokes

This chapter considers the ability of individuals to seek redress to resolve environmental disputes and the role played by the courts. First, the chapter considers the reasons why some disputes end up in the courts before focusing on the main institution of judicial redress in the form of judicial review. Focus includes discussion of likelihood of success before the courts and the usefulness of judicial review in environmental cases. Specifically, the chapter focuses on the problem encountered by litigants in respect to the exorbitant costs associated with judicial review and the attempt by the Government to address this. The chapter also briefly considers the provisions for access to justice in private law as well as before the Court of Justice for the EU before considering alternative mechanisms for compliance, including the debates surrounding the need for a special environmental court.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

2. Funding Litigation  

This chapter discusses the issue of funding litigation. Solicitors have a professional duty to advise clients on litigation funding options. The advice and agreed funding method should be confirmed in writing in a ‘client care letter’. Most commercial clients pay their lawyers under the traditional retainer, normally with an agreed hourly rate. Conditional free agreements (CFAs) or ‘no win, no fee’ agreements allow a lawyer to agree not to charge the client if the proceedings are unsuccessful, but to charge an uplift or ‘success fee’ of up to 100 per cent over the solicitor’s usual costs if the proceedings are successful. Damages-based agreements (DBAs) are a form of contingency fee agreement under which the lawyer is paid out of the sums recovered in the proceedings. Public funding through legal aid is restricted to individuals with modest income and capital, and there are wide exclusions from the scheme.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to the English Legal System

10. Access to justice: paying for legal services  

This chapter focuses on how legal services, in particular litigation, to the less well off and the poor are paid for. It considers first the radically changed shape of the legal aid scheme and publicly funded legal services in recent years and then discusses the developments designed to control the costs of litigation. It summarizes new ideas for the funding of litigation and improving access to justice. It considers the contribution of the legal profession and approaches to re-engineering the system, finally asking whether new processes—alternatives to the courts—might be better at providing cost effective and proportionate dispute resolution services.