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Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter explores the main types of involuntary manslaughter: unlawful act manslaughter, gross negligence manslaughter, and reckless manslaughter, as well as the offence of corporate manslaughter. Unlawful act manslaughter arises where the defendant intentionally commits an unlawful act which a reasonable person would recognise exposes the victim to the risk of some harm and the victim dies as a result. Gross negligence manslaughter arises where the defendant causes the death of the victim through the breach of a duty of care owed to that victim.

Chapter

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

This chapter explores involuntary manslaughter in its three forms: unlawful act manslaughter, gross negligence manslaughter and reckless manslaughter. Given the breadth of cases that involuntary manslaughter must cover, it is not surprising that more than one form of the offence has evolved, and that the elements of each form of involuntary manslaughter are distinct, particularly as to the fault required. The chapter examines recent developments, in particular those relating to gross negligence manslaughter and whether the offence is contrary to Art 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights. It concludes with a detailed assessment of the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter explores the main types of involuntary manslaughter: unlawful act manslaughter, gross negligence manslaughter, and reckless manslaughter, as well as the offence of corporate manslaughter. Unlawful act manslaughter arises where the defendant intentionally commits an unlawful act which a reasonable person would recognise exposes the victim to the risk of some harm and the victim dies as a result. Gross negligence manslaughter arises where the defendant causes the death of the victim through the breach of a duty of care owed to that victim.

Chapter

This chapter examines the provisions of criminal law for involuntary manslaughter in England and Wales, explaining that involuntary manslaughter may be caused by recklessness, gross negligence, or unlawful and dangerous acts. It considers other homicide-related offences such as infanticide and causing death by dangerous, careless, or inconsiderate driving, and analyses court decisions in several cases. The chapter explains the principle of corporate liability, highlighting problems in prosecuting a corporation for a serious crime, and explains the key provisions of the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act (CMCHA) 2007 in England and Wales. It also provides several examples of relevant cases and analyses the bases of court decisions in each of them.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter covers the offence of corporate manslaughter. Murder and manslaughter are the most common homicide offences in English law. The killing of a person is the actus reus of both murder and manslaughter. Murder is deliberately causing death or grievous bodily harm. A person is guilty of constructive manslaughter if he/she causes death by an intentional, unlawful, and dangerous act. Many proposals for reform resulted in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 reforms, although these were different to the Law Commission proposals.

Chapter

This chapter considers homicide offences, including murder, voluntary and involuntary manslaughter, infanticide, corporate manslaughter and causing death by dangerous or careless driving. Homicide may be classified as lawful or unlawful. Essentially the actus reus elements of murder, manslaughter and infanticide are the same – the defendant needs to have unlawfully caused another’s death. However, unlike murder, involuntary manslaughter and infanticide have additional actus reus requirements. The key difference though is that the mens rea requirement for involuntary manslaughter and infanticide is lower than that for murder. Additionally, a person who is guilty of murder would have their liability reduced to voluntary manslaughter if one of the partial defences (loss of control, diminished responsibility and suicide pact) was successfully raised.cor

Chapter

This chapter discusses the ways in which organizations and their members might be held liable in criminal law. It covers personal liability of individuals within an organization; vicarious liability; corporate liability: by breaching a statutory duty imposed on the organization, by committing strict liability offences, by being liable for the acts of individuals under the identification doctrine, and the specific statutory liability of organizations for homicide under the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007; and liability of unincorporated associations.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines company contracts including: pre-incorporation contracts, the company’s capacity, directors’ authority, and restrictions on the powers of directors to bind the company. The chapter also considers liability of the company for tortious and criminal acts, including vicarious liability; attribution; and the particular area of corporate manslaughter and the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007.

Book

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Criminal Law Directions is written with an emphasis on explaining the key topics of Criminal Law courses with clarity. The book starts by offering an introduction to criminal law. It also looks at the issues of actus reus and mens rea. It goes on to consider topics such as strict, vicarious, and corporate liability; murder and voluntary manslaughter; involuntary manslaughter; non-fatal offences against the person; and sexual offences. It moves on to look at theft and other offences against property, including robbery, burglary, blackmail, handling, and criminal damage. Fraud and drugs offences are then examined and general and specific defences are explored. Finally the book considers inchoate offences and accessorial liability.