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Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

8. Variation, breach, and termination of employment  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses variations of terms and conditions of employment. Theoretically, neither employer nor employee can unilaterally alter the terms and conditions of employment. A unilateral variation that is not accepted will constitute a breach and, if serious, could amount to a repudiation of the contract. A repudiation does not automatically terminate a contract of employment. In order to justify summary dismissal, the employee must be in breach of an important express or implied term of the contract.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

25. The contract of employment  

This chapter examines the issues concerning contracts of employment. It begins by looking at how employment law disputes are resolved, namely by discussing the role of employment tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal, and how they fit into the courts structure discussed in Chapter 2. The chapter than discusses the difference between employees and independent contractors, and looks at the status of several special classes of worker. An examination of the terms of the contract then takes place, including a discussion of express terms, and the terms that are implied that relate to the conduct of the employer and employee.

Chapter

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment

16. Wrongful Dismissal  

Under the law which existed prior to 1971, an employer was entitled to dismiss an employee for any reason or no reason at all. In 1971 the Industrial Relations Act created the right for many employees not to be unfairly dismissed, and though that Act was repealed, the relevant provisions were substantially re-enacted in the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974, and further changes were made by the Employment Protection Act 1975. The Employment Rights Act 1996 (as amended) contains most of the relevant statutory provisions currently in force. This chapter discusses the ways in which wrongful dismissal may occur, collateral contracts, summary dismissal, and employment law remedies.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

2. Contracts of employment  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses employment contracts. Covenants potentially in restraint of trade are express written terms which may apply during the contract, but are usually expressed to apply after termination. They are a rare illustration of contractual terms, which must be in writing. The general purpose of these is to prevent a former employee competing against his former employers; for example, by taking commercially confidential information or influencing customers to give their business to the firm he has joined. The Supreme Court has recently ruled on the width of the doctrine of severance of such covenants. Topics covered include the provision of the written statement, a right which employees have enjoyed since 1963, but which was extended to workers in 2020; the sources of terms in employment contracts; duties of the employer; and duties of the employee. These duties or implied terms are divided into terms implied in law (ie inserted into every contract of employment) and terms implied in fact (ie inserted into a particular contract of employment). The latter are divided into terms implied in fact which work against the employers’ interests and terms which work against the employees’ interests. Examples of the former include the duty to pay wages; examples of the latter include the duty to obey reasonable orders.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

11. Continuity of employment and TUPE  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses continuous employment and the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE). An employee’s period of continuous employment begins on the day on which the employee starts work. Although continuity provisions normally apply to employment by one employer, there are situations where a transfer from one employer to another can preserve continuity of employment. One such situation is when there is a relevant transfer under TUPE. TUPE acts to ensure that an individual’s contract of employment is transferred in its entirety when the individual employee experiences a change of employer as a result of a transfer.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

7. Contractual employment rights  

This chapter introduces the basic principles of the law of contract as they apply to contracts of employment. It focuses on three issues in particular. First we look at how contracts are formed in the context of an employment relationship and at the conditions that need to be in place if a contract of employment is to be enforceable in a court. We then go on to discuss how employers can go about lawfully varying the terms of contracts by using flexibility clauses and other approaches. Finally we discuss the need to provide employees with written particulars of their employment soon after they start working in a new job.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

4. Alternative Personal Work Contracts and Relations  

This chapter first examines the two statutory constructs occupying an intermediate position between the employment contract and contract for services that have been formulated by the UK Parliament as a repository for the conferral of certain statutory employment rights. These two statutorily recognized personal work contracts—the ‘worker’ contract and the ‘contract personally to do work’—are intermediate contract types, lying somewhere between the contract of employment and the contract for services. The discussion here is situated within the context of the controversy surrounding the growing numbers of atypical working contracts, such as contracts entered into by ‘gig economy’ workers, ‘zero-hours’ workers, casual workers, etc. The chapter then turns to address the legal status of agency workers. It examines whether the Agency Workers Regulations 2010 address the disadvantages experienced by this section of the UK workforce.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

6. Statutory employment protection and related contractual issues  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about statutory employment protection and related contractual issues. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of statutory employment protection including eligibility requirements for the right not to be unfairly dismissed, the right to written reasons for dismissal, statutory minimum notice periods, the right to be accompanied to disciplinary hearings, and the ACAS Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

23. Statutory and Common Law Regulation of the Conditions of Employment  

This chapter continues from the discussion of the obligations on employers to adhere to the Equality Act (EA) 2010 and protect their workers from discrimination and harassment, to a wider consideration of the regulation of conditions of employment. Legislation places many obligations on employers, and they are increasingly subject to statutory controls that provide for a minimum wage to be paid to workers, for regulation as to the maximum number of hours workers may be required to work, and for the protection of workers’ health and safety. In the event of an employer’s insolvency, the rights of employees are identified, and finally, the mechanisms for employers to protect their business interests in the contract of employment are considered.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

20. Ending Employment Contracts at Common Law; and Duties to Redundant and Transferring Staff  

This chapter identifies the remedy for the termination of contracts of employment through the common law claim of wrongful dismissal. It addresses situations of redundancy, and the rights of individuals and obligations on employers when the business is transferred to a new owner. Each of these measures offer protection to employees, and employers should understand the nature of these rights, the qualifications necessary for each mechanism, and the remedies available, to ensure they select the most appropriate mechanism to bring the employment relationship to an end. Before the 1960s, contracts of employment were largely dealt with by the ‘normal’ rules of contract law and were often heard by courts that hear contractual disputes. It is important to be aware of the mechanisms that will enable termination of the employment relationship without transgressing the law in order to maintain good working relations.

Chapter

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment

19. Duties of Ex-employees  

This chapter considers the duties of ex-employees, ie the obligations which apply to an employee who is about to leave his employment (whether voluntarily or otherwise), or who has actually left that employment. The law must strike a delicate balance. On the one hand, an employee has a right to earn his living, and knowledge and skills obtained in his former employment will doubtless enable him to continue to do so; on the other hand, an employer is entitled to limited protection against an employee who may well be seeking to compete. It includes garden leave, trade secrets and confidential information, restraint of trade, and working for competitors.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

19. Transfers of Undertakings  

This chapter examines the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE). It first assesses the legal position prior to the introduction of the European Acquired Rights Directive 2001, which is the source of TUPE. It then analyses the principal implications of TUPE and its provisions. It considers the circumstances when TUPE will apply and the extent to which TUPE has been interpreted progressively to include economic transactions and arrangements which transcend the transfer of an organization’s business and assets. The chapter also examines the impact of TUPE on the contract of employment, and discusses the information and consultation obligations imposed on transferors.

Book

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law
The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for law students tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This book offers clear advice on what to expect in typical employment law exams. It addresses a wide range of employment law topics that are most often encountered in employment law courses, including questions on ‘mixed’ topics. The book provides sample essay and problem questions to allow students to practise and refine exam skills. These are supported by suggested answers and diagram plans. Detailed author commentary explains what examiners are looking for, traps to avoid, and how students can best achieve their potential. This book also includes separate chapters on skills and tips for success in both exams and in coursework assessments. It is an ideal tool to help support revision or to use throughout studies to help review learning.

Book

Cover Employment Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Employment Law Concentrate helps to consolidate knowledge in this area of law. This seventh edition includes updates on employment law, including further coverage of the employment status, written particulars, restraint of trade, and equal pay. The book includes discussion of recent cases, including Supreme Court ones, and forthcoming amendments to the law are noted where appropriate. The volume also looks at implied terms, discrimination, parental rights, working time, and types of breach of employment contracts and termination of employment contracts. Finally, the text looks at dismissal issues (including both wrongful and unfair dismissal), redundancy, and trade unions. The chapter on trade unions has been transferred to online-only content, available in the online resources for this book.

Book

Cover Card & James' Business Law
Card & James’ Business Law provides analysis of the English legal system, contract law, the law of torts, company law, and employment law, with online chapters providing further discussion relating to the economic torts, corporate governance, the sale of goods, consumer credit, and the law relating to unfair and illegal commercial practices. All of this is discussed using relevant examples from the business environment, and the key legal cases to help develop a greater understanding of the interconnections between the law and the corporate setting. Part I of the book looks at the English legal system. Part II looks at the law of contract including the formation, terms, exclusion clauses, and remedies. Part III looks at the law of torts in detail. Part IV considers partnership and company law including business structures, the constituents of a company, shares, capital maintenance, shareholders remedies, and corporate rescue. Finally, Part V is about employment law.

Chapter

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment

9. Transfer of Undertakings  

This chapter considers the transfer of undertakings. It looks at the background and at the legislation, including the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 and the Collective Redundancies and Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) (Amendment) Regulations 2014. It discusses what counts as a transfer of a business or undertaking, considering service provision changes and transfers within the public administration. Also covered are the mechanics and effects of the transfer, including statutory rights and the effect on the contract of employment; dismissal on transfers and ETO reasons (economic, organisational or technological reason); refusing a transfer; employee liability information; and remedy for failure to notify employee liability information. It also looks at the effect of transfers on collective agreements and insolvency rights.

Chapter

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment

3. The Formation of a Contract of Employment  

This chapter discusses how an employment contract is formed, and it then looks at the terms and conditions of employment and how these terms are to be interpreted. The types of terms discussed include express terms, implied terms, statutory terms, collective agreements and how such collective terms are incorporated, and looks at custom as a source of employment terms and works and staff rules. The chapter also considers other aspects of the contract of employment such as disciplinary and grievance procedures, job descriptions, written particulars of the contract of employment, the right to itemised pay statements, variation of contractual terms, and an overview of occupational pension schemes.

Book

Cover Introduction to Business Law
Introduction to Business Law demonstrates the relevance of key areas of the law to a world of work that the business student can relate to. Students of business often find business law modules challenging, irrelevant to their future career, and full of alien terminology and concepts. Structured in eight parts, this book provides a foundation in the key legal concepts of the English legal system, contract law, and negligence before discussing how the law affects the everyday workings of businesses and their employees from protecting intellectual property rights to company formation, winding up and insolvency. It covers a variety of topics around the subjects of the English legal system, contract law, the law of torts, employment law, the structure and management of business and the major intellectual property rights.

Chapter

Cover Smith & Wood's Employment Law

2. Contracts of employment (1): status, formation, continuity, and change  

This chapter discusses the way in which the law has had to keep up with changing models of ‘employment’. Even the old ‘employee/self-employed’ division is now complicated by increasing use in modern statutes of the term ‘worker’. Part-time, fixed-term, and agency workers have featured prominently in modern employment law and consideration is given to these specifically, along with even more topical areas of concern such as zero-hour contracts and the challenges of the ‘gig economy’ more generally. Three more technical areas are then considered. The first concerns the ‘section 1 statement’ of basic terms and conditions that has been an obligation on employers since 1963 but is still not always given. The second concerns the difficult question of the extent to which an employer can seek to impose limitations on an employee even after employment ends. The third concerns the whole question of how the terms of an employment contract can lawfully be changed by one or both of the parties to it.

Chapter

Cover Smith & Wood's Employment Law

2. Contracts of employment (1): status, formation, continuity, and change  

Ian Smith, Owen Warnock, and Gemma Mitchell

This chapter discusses the way in which the law has had to keep up with changing models of ‘employment’. Even the old ‘employee/self-employed’ division is now complicated by increasing use in modern statutes of the term ‘worker’. Part-time, fixed-term, and agency workers have featured prominently in modern employment law and consideration is given to these specifically, along with even more topical areas of concern such as zero-hour contracts and the challenges of the ‘gig economy’ more generally. Three more technical areas are then considered. The first concerns the ‘section 1 statement’ of basic terms and conditions that has been an obligation on employers since 1963 but is still not always given. The second concerns the difficult question of the extent to which an employer can seek to impose limitations on an employee even after employment ends. The third concerns the whole question of how the terms of an employment contract can lawfully be changed by one or both of the parties to it.