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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

20. Conciliation  

This chapter assesses conciliation, which is a voluntary process whereby a neutral third party facilitates negotiations between the parties to a dispute and assists them to reach a settlement. In England and Wales, conciliation tends to be court-driven and it is most often used in family and employment cases. In employment cases, the parties must attempt mandatory Early Conciliation with the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) before a claim is issued in the Employment Tribunal, and conciliation can also be undertaken by ACAS after a claim has been lodged if Early Conciliation did not result in a settlement. In-court conciliation also takes place in family cases in disputes relating to children and money on the breakdown of the relationship between the parties. In addition, a number of independent conciliation schemes exist to help consumers solve disputes in relation to goods or services.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

19. Alternative Dispute Resolution  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter considers alternative dispute resolutions (ADR), which are ways that a dispute can be settled outside of the court process. The chapters considers the growth of ADR and how the courts now require litigants to consider ADR before commencing legal action. The courts have wide powers to encourage ADR and this chapter considers these powers and why the courts try to encourage ADR. The key forms of ADR are then presented, together with an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

19. Alternative Dispute Resolution  

This chapter considers alternative dispute resolutions (ADR), which are ways that a dispute can be settled outside the court process. The chapter considers the growth of ADR and how the courts now require litigants to consider ADR before commencing legal action. The courts have wide powers to encourage ADR and this chapter considers these powers and why the courts try to encourage ADR. The key forms of ADR are then presented, together with an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System

16. Alternative dispute resolution  

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) describes any method of resolving legal disputes other than through litigation in the courts or tribunals. ADR includes arbitration, mediation, adjudication, conciliation, med-arb, and early neutral evaluation/expert determination. This chapter explains the differences between the various forms of ADR, why ADR exists, its many advantages (compared to litigation), and its disadvantages. The chapter examines case law dealing with the ‘cost consequences’ of a failure by one party to a legal dispute to engage in ADR when presented with the opportunity to do so. The chapter considers whether ADR should be made compulsory and the extent to which the parties to a dispute, having agreed to resolve their dispute through ADR, can be compelled to honour that agreement.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

30. Employment tribunal procedure  

This chapter looks at the employment tribunal procedure and at the steps that are generally taken before a full hearing takes place, including settlements and early conciliation. Also considered are time limits. Employment tribunals are less formal than other courts. The tribunal panel is usually made up of a judge and two lay members, but a judge can sit alone in certain circumstances. A case has to be brought on a standard ET1 form, and a response on a standard ET3 form. Full details have to be given, and permission is rarely given to amend. Preliminary hearings can be held to sort out issues such as disclosure. There is also an emphasis on settlement if possible.

Chapter

Cover International Law

12. International dispute settlement and the ICJ  

This chapter examines the various political or diplomatic methods available for international dispute settlement. These methods include negotiation, mediation or ‘good offices’, inquiry, and conciliation. The array of diplomatic techniques available to parties to resolve a dispute is complemented by various means of settling disputes through the application of binding solutions based on the law. Two in particular, arbitration and adjudication, principally developed from earlier forms of non-binding settlement. Though these are different, they are linked by two principal characteristics. Foremost, they allow for a third party to issue a decision that is binding on the parties. Secondly, resorting to these methods requires the prior consent of the parties. The chapter then considers the International Court of Justice, the ‘principal judicial organ’ of the United Nations. The ICJ’s structure was frequently utilized as a model for later judicial institutions, making an enormous contribution to the development of international law.

Chapter

Cover Smith & Wood's Employment Law

1. Introduction  

This book focuses on employment law, which has been the subject of as rapid a transformation as can have happened to any legal subject in recent times, and is certainly one of the most difficult areas of law in which to keep up to date. In some ways employment law is a curious mixture of ancient and modern, for much old law lies behind or at the basis of new statutory law and in some cases the old law continues to exist alongside the new. The subject is, however, unrecognizable from what it was only 40 years ago, with the enormous increase in statute law and the ever-increasing volume of case law on the modern statutes. Thus, the intending student must be able to exercise the lawyer’s skill in dealing with both extensive case law and major statutes, sometimes of astounding complexity. As well as setting out the history of this area of law, this chapter covers important background features of procedure and the enforcement of the law through tribunals, including significant developments such as ACAS early conciliation, the fiasco over tribunal fees, and possible future reforms to the system of adjudication.

Chapter

Cover Smith & Wood's Employment Law

1. Introduction  

Ian Smith, Owen Warnock, and Gemma Mitchell

This book focuses on employment law, which has been the subject of as rapid a transformation as can have happened to any legal subject in recent times, and is certainly one of the most difficult areas of law in which to keep up to date. In some ways employment law is a curious mixture of ancient and modern, for much old law lies behind or at the basis of new statutory law and in some cases the old law continues to exist alongside the new. The subject is, however, unrecognizable from what it was only 40 years ago, with the enormous increase in statute law and the ever-increasing volume of case law on the modern statutes. Thus, the intending student must be able to exercise the lawyer’s skill in dealing with both extensive case law and major statutes, sometimes of astounding complexity. As well as setting out the history of this area of law, this chapter covers important background features of procedure and the enforcement of the law through tribunals, including significant developments such as ACAS early conciliation, the fiasco over tribunal fees, and possible future reforms to the system of adjudication.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

Additional Chapter Aspects of Commercial ADR  

Although there is no formally agreed definition of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), it is generally accepted as including all methods of resolving disputes other than through formal litigation. The use of ADR has developed significantly over the past few decades and despite the use of the word ‘alternative’ it is now very much part of mainstream thinking in modern-day dispute resolution. The importance of ADR to civil actions was reinforced by the Civil Procedure Rules in 1998, which emphasized it as part of the overriding objective, encouraged at all stages of the dispute process, from pre-action to after litigation has commenced. This is reinforced by sanctions that a court can impose on a party which fails properly to embrace the process. The Review of Civil Litigation Costs carried out by Jackson LJ further promoted the importance and use of ADR. There are many different forms of ADR, both adjudicative and non-adjudicative. This chapter will focus on the use of mediation as a non-adjudicative form of ADR and the steps the courts take to require (rather than compel) the parties to attempt to resolve their disputes.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

2. The Court System and Alternative Dispute Resolution  

This chapter discusses the English court system, civil disputes, and alternative dispute resolution. The courts in England and Wales form a hierarchy. At the lowest level are the Magistrates’ Courts and the County Courts, then the Crown Court and High Court, then the Court of Appeal, and finally the Supreme Court. The chapter considers the role of the Court of Justice of the European Union in interpreting EU law within Member States. It explains the position of the European Court of Human Rights, which deals with allegations of state breaches of the European Convention on Human Rights. Civil disputes arise in every area of business. An explanation of the civil procedure rules from commencing a claim to enforcement of a court judgment is provided. The chapter concludes with a discussion of alternative methods of dispute resolution including arbitration, mediation, and conciliation.