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Chapter

Cover Equity & Trusts

19. Third Party Liability  

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter focuses its discussion on personal claims, where the claimant seeks a sum of money from the defendant but does not assert any right to any particular property. However, even where the defendant is solvent and could satisfy a personal claim, a proprietary claim might often be more desirable. If the property has risen in value, then that uplift in value will necessarily benefit the claimant if the claim is proprietary, but not if the claim is personal. A personal claim for the value of the property at the time of the third party’s wrong might be preferred where the property has fallen in value. Moreover, a personal claim will be the only possible type of claim available to the claimant if the property in question has been dissipated and no longer exists. In such circumstances, a proprietary claim is impossible and a personal claim alone can be pursued.

Chapter

Cover Equity and Trusts Concentrate

12. Remedies for breach of trust  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. When property is held on trust, arising expressly or implied by law, any breach of the trustee/fiduciary obligation will lead to a remedy. This chapter explains the personal and proprietary remedies available to the claimant. A personal claim is one made against the trustee/fiduciary personally; it is not based upon the recipient having the property in their possession. A proprietary claim is based upon the defendant having the property or its replacement in their possession and being required to return it, or its substitute, to the claimant. The claimant, after identifying the breach, will often have the choice of which claim to make and there may be more than one possible remedy.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

6. Issuing and Serving  

Civil proceedings commence with the issuance of a claim form. Issuing a claim involves the court sealing the claim form with its official seal. This chapter discusses issuing and serving proceedings. It covers the claim form; jurisdictional endorsements; particulars of claim; specialist claims; issuing a claim form; service of the claim form; deemed date of service of the claim form; service of documents other than a claim form; deemed date of service (non-claim form documents); certificate of service; irregular service; and filing of documents at court.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

19. Evidence and Disclosure  

Collecting and analysing evidence is often one of the most expensive elements of litigation. The approach to dealing with disclosure of evidence has been modified as part of the reforms introduced following the review carried out by Lord Justice Sir Rupert Jackson. The norm of standard disclosure has been replaced by options for the level of disclosure designed to ensure that disclosure is proportionate, which presents opportunities for saving costs and opens up some tactical considerations as regards the level of disclosure to seek and to offer. This chapter focuses on general principles and approaches that are most likely to be effective in preparing a case. It discusses the key rules of admissibility; questions of weight and reliability on the evidence presented; identifying what needs to be proved in a case; types of evidence; collecting evidence; disclosure of evidence; electronic disclosure of evidence; and reviewing and advising on evidence.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

20. Vicarious liability  

This chapter examines the principle of vicarious liability, a form of secondary liability through which employers may, in certain circumstances, be liable for the torts of their employees, even though the employer themselves may be entirely blameless. The imposition of vicarious liability is one of the most important exceptions to the general approach of the common law whereby liability for any wrongdoing is imposed on, and only on, the wrongdoer(s). A defendant will not be vicariously liable unless the following conditions are met: (a) there is an employer–employee relationship (or one akin to this) between the defendant and the person for whose actions they are being held liable; and (b) a close connection between this relationship and the tortious wrongdoing of the employee

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

26. Security for Costs  

The question of who pays for the costs of a claim is generally not determined until the claim is finally disposed of, whether by consent, interim process, or trial. However, an order for security for costs can be made against a party in the position of a claimant. Once security is given it may be retained, subject to the court’s discretion, pending an appeal. An order for security for costs usually requires the claimant to pay money into court as security for the payment of any costs order that may eventually be made in favour of the defendant, and staying the claim until the security is provided. On the application three issues arise: (i) whether one of the conditions for ordering security for costs is satisfied; (ii) if so, whether, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, it would be just to exercise the court’s discretion in favour of making the order; and (iii) if so, how much security should be provided. This chapter considers each of these three issues. It begins by looking at the procedure for making the application and the capacity of the respondent to the application.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

20. Vicarious liability  

This chapter examines the principle of vicarious liability, a form of secondary liability through which employers may, in certain circumstances, be liable for the torts of their employees, even though the employer themselves may be entirely blameless. The imposition of vicarious liability is one of the most important exceptions to the general approach of the common law whereby liability for any wrongdoing is imposed on, and only on, the wrongdoer(s). A defendant will not be vicariously liable unless the following conditions are met: (a) there is an employer–employee relationship between the defendant and the person for whose actions they are being held liable; (b) the employee committed the tortious act while acting in the course of their employment.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

15. Issuing Proceedings, Track Allocation, and Directions  

This chapter begins with a discussion of court selection. The issue of proceedings, and to some extent the choice of court, is increasingly being streamlined, with the procedure for County Court money claims and bulk claims being moved online. For the larger multi-track cases, however, the High Court and the County Court have concurrent jurisdiction for many types of proceedings. The chapter then explains the issuance of the claim form, which marks the start of formal litigation; the service of proceedings, i.e. the formal process by which the defendant is notified of the claim; the claimant's selection of the court in which the claim is brought; and the court's allocation of the case to a particular ‘track’. The final section deals with the directions questionnaire (form N180), which should not be seen as a formality but as a key step in defining how the case should move forward.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

47. Qualified One-Way Costs Shifting  

Qualified one-way costs shifting (QOCS) provides costs protection to claimants in personal injuries claims. If the claimant wins, the defendant should be ordered to pay the claimant’s costs in the usual way. However, if the claimant loses, under QOCS, while the claimant remains liable to pay its own lawyers’ costs, and may be ordered to pay the successful defendant’s costs, the claimant will be protected against actually having to pay those costs to the defendant. This chapter discusses cases where QOCS applies; the effects of QOCS; and loss of QOCS protection.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

36. Offers to Settle  

Part 36 of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) provides a means for a party to make a formal offer in settlement of the claim which will be treated as without prejudice for the purposes of liability and remedies, but which can be disclosed to the court on the question of costs. This chapter discusses offers to settle before the commencement of proceedings; making a Part 36 offer; acceptance of a Part 36 offer; rejections, counter-offers, and subsequent offers; withdrawal and amendment of Part 36 offers; failing to obtain judgment more advantageous than a Part 36 offer; advising on Part 36 offers; non-disclosure to judge; and Part 36 offers in appeals.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Re Montagu’s Settlement Trusts [1987] Ch 264, Chancery Division  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Re Montagu’s Settlement Trusts [1987] Ch 264, Chancery Division. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Re Montagu’s Settlement Trusts [1987] Ch 264, Chancery Division  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Re Montagu’s Settlement Trusts [1987] Ch 264, Chancery Division. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

12. Drafting Statements of Case  

A statement of case is a summary of allegations of fact which sets out all the elements required by law to show a cause of action, and entitlement to all remedies claimed. Clear, concise, and complete statements of case are central to effective litigation. A good statement of case encapsulates what the case is about, demonstrating good factual analysis, based on a proper understanding of the relevant law. This chapter deals with the rules and skill related to statements of case, and how statements of case can be refined. The discussions cover the process for drafting a statement of case; rules for drafting; principles for focusing on issues; headings for statements of case; framework for particulars of a claim; specifying remedies and relief; refining a statement of case; and challenging a statement of case.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

14. Pursuing Appropriate Remedies  

The main purpose of most litigation is to secure a remedy or relief. That is the reason why the claimant starts the action, and it should be the focus of many decisions relating to the case. From the first contact with the client, lawyers must be clear about what the client really wants to achieve, and decisions about causes of action, evidence, and interim applications should focus on the remedies and relief being pursued. This chapter discusses the remedies a court can and cannot order; claims for damages; quantification of damages; and claims for interest on top of claims for the payment of a sum of money or damages. The final section covers the importance of taking a proactive approach to claiming and quantifying damages.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

16. Defending an Action  

This chapter focuses on the role of the defendant. The litigation system in England is adversarial, thus on the face of it the role of the defendant is potentially defensive, confrontational, and non cooperative. While the objective of the defendant will usually be to make the claim go away, the perhaps natural desire to take an approach that involves denial, delay, and obfuscation wherever possible must be resisted, or at least carefully considered. The chapter discusses the main types of defence to an action; dealing with the early stages of an action when a claim form is received; rules for drafting a defence; making a counterclaim; claiming a set-off; a general framework for a defence and counterclaim; and strategies and tactics in defending a case.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter first reviews the current state of the law of tort. It discusses the increase in tort claims due to our greater ability to cause more and greater harm and our reduced willingness to put up with the normal vicissitudes of life. It considers the law of individual responsibility. It suggests that tort law is becoming by the day a more complex set of rules than it ever was, where national law mixes with legal ideas emanating from foreign jurisdictions. Tort law rules are also becoming intermingled with those from other branches of English law. The second part of the chapter discusses the relationship between tort and contract.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

21. Damages for death and personal injuries  

This chapter examines various issues in relation to damages in tort, beginning by looking at the principles that lie behind damages awards. The primary object of the law is to compensate those who have been harmed by another’s wrongdoing by making an award that seeks to put the claimant into the position that they would have been in had the harm not occurred. The chapter discusses the calculation and forms of damage payments, and special and general damages; independent, joint and several concurrent liabilities; time limitations on claims; the problem with damages; and debunking the compensation culture myth.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

8. Breach of duty: the standard of care  

This chapter focuses on breach of duty. Breach occurs where a defendant has fallen below the particular standard of care demanded by the law. This is largely an objective test and is determined by comparing the actions of the defendant to those imagined to be done in the same circumstances by the so-called ‘reasonable man’. The questions to be answered are how the defendant ought to have behaved (what was the required standard of care) and how the defendant did behave (did they in fact fall below that standard).

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

8. Limitation and Contribution  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the principles of contribution and their effect on the remedies that can be obtained by a successful claimant, as well as the statutory rules of ‘limitation’ that govern the time-barring of claims. The liability of more than one party for ‘the same damage’ is discussed, together with the apportionment of responsibility for the damage. Relevant provisions found in the Civil Liability (Contribution) Act 1978 and the Limitation Act 1980 are also considered.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

44. Search Orders  

This chapter discusses the rules for search orders. A search order is a bundle of interim orders which require the respondent to admit another party to premises for the purpose of preserving evidence which might otherwise be destroyed or concealed by the respondent. Search orders are principally, but not exclusively, used in intellectual property claims against defendants who are likely to destroy incriminating evidence rather than disclose it voluntarily under standard disclosure.