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Chapter

Cover Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter begins with a definition of tort law and the interests that tort law protects. To say that the law of tort protects an individual’s rights or interests does not mean that a claimant will succeed simply by showing that the defendant harmed them or infringed their rights. Tort law lays down a set of rules stating when exactly a harm or infringement of one’s interest will give rise to legal liability. The chapter discusses the disparate functions of tort law and illustrates them through the case of Woodroffe-Hedley v Cuthbertson [1997]. The chapter then explains the significance of the Human Rights Act 1998 for tort law.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter begins with a definition of tort law and the interests that tort law protects. To say that the law of tort protects an individual’s rights or interests does not mean that a claimant will succeed simply by showing that the defendant harmed them or infringed their rights. Tort law lays down a set of rules stating when exactly a harm or infringement of one’s interest will give rise to legal liability. The chapter discusses the disparate functions of tort law and illustrates them through the case of Woodroffe-Hedley v Cuthbertson [1997]. The chapter then explains the significance of the Human Rights Act 1998 for tort law.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

23. The fourth, sixth, seventh, and thirteenth protocols  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Protocols 4, 6, 7, and 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Protocols 4 and 7 protect a selection of civil and political rights not covered by the main Convention text and which make up for the substantive deficiencies of the Convention when compared to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Protocols 6 and 13 concern the abolition of the death penalty in peacetime and in war, respectively.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

4. The International Bill of Human Rights  

This chapter analyses the history and principles of the International Bill of Human Rights, which is the ethical and legal basis for all the human rights work of the United Nations. The Bill consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, two Optional Protocols annexed thereto, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and Protocol. The chapter also assesses whether the Bill of Human Rights has lived up to the expectations of the original proponents.

Chapter

Cover Constitutional and Administrative Law

17. Freedoms and liberties in the United Kingdom  

This chapter is concerned with how freedoms and liberties might be protected in the UK. It begins with an attempt to distinguish between human rights and civil liberties, whilst recognizing that this is by no means a straightforward task. It then covers political and social or economic rights, the traditional means of protecting civil liberties in the UK, the European Convention on Human Rights, the incorporation of the Convention into English law, and judicial deference/discretionary areas of judgment. The Human Rights Act 1998 is reviewed from a protection of rights perspective. Finally, the question of a Bill of Rights for the UK is considered, along with reform intentions relating to the 1998 Act.

Chapter

Cover International Law

9. International human rights law  

This chapter discusses the system of human rights protection that has emerged since the end of the Second World War. It begins in Section 9.2 with the primary sources of human rights law before Section 9.3 discusses the different categories of human rights. Section 9.4 discusses the obligation on states to offer protection from acts of private actors. Section 9.5 provides an overview of the enforcement mechanisms in the UN and Section 9.6 focuses on the regional protection of human rights. Section 9.7 discusses the territorial scope of human rights treaties and Section 9.8 concerns the application of human rights in times of public emergency. Section 9.8 provides an overview of the international legal protection of refugees.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Human Rights and Civil Liberties

2. Nature and Enforcement of Human Rights and Civil Liberties  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers the nature and enforcement of human rights, including their values and inherent restrictions and their protection at both domestic and international levels.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

32. Remedies in intellectual property litigation  

This chapter discusses the enforcement procedures used in relation to intellectual property rights, the civil remedies that apply, and some issues which arise in relation to the gathering of evidence in intellectual property cases. It identifies three essential elements in the relationship between intellectual property rights and remedies. First, there are the traditional remedies headed by damages that are normally granted at the trial. Second, intellectual property infringement often requires immediate action or a pre-emptive strike. Finally, gathering evidence that is vital for the full trial in an infringement case.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

4. Overriding Objective and Human Rights  

This chapter discusses the sources of procedural law, the general principles relevant to civil procedure established by the overriding objective, the European Convention on Human Rights, and some rules on how the courts approach construing the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR). The CPR and practice directions (PDs) are the procedural rules governing civil proceedings. The most important rule is the ‘overriding objective’ of dealing with claims justly and at proportionate cost. The most important Convention rights in civil litigation are the right to a fair trial, the right to respect for private and family life, and the right to freedom of expression.

Book

Cover International Human Rights Law
International Human Rights Law provides a concise introduction for students new to the subject. Clearly written and broad in scope, this popular text gives a concise introduction to international human rights, including regional systems of protection and the key substantive rights. The author skilfully guides you through the complexities of the subject, making it accessible to those with little or no prior legal and/or international knowledge. Key cases and areas of debate are highlighted throughout, and a wealth of references to cases and further readings are provided at the end of each chapter. The book continues to be relied upon by students worldwide as the first book to turn to for clear and accurate coverage. The book traces the unprecedented expansion in the internationally recognized rights of all people with acceptance of a human rights dimension to the quest for international peace and security following the formation of the United Nations in 1945. It examines the International Bill of Rights and the regional protection of human rights, and describes several human rights organizations including the Organization of American States and the African Union. The book discusses different types of rights, including the right to life, the right to liberty of person, and the right to an adequate standard of living, and also evaluates the monitoring, implementation, and enforcement of human rights laws.

Chapter

Cover Jacobs, White, and Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights

25. Results and Prospects  

This chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It suggests that the principal achievement of the Convention has been the establishment of a formal system of legal protection available to individuals covering a range of civil and political rights which has become the European standard. The chapter highlights the measures taken by the Court to decrease its caseload and increase its efficiency in dealing with applications. It also highlights the contemporary challenges facing the Court, including the relationship between States and the Court, the challenge of the rise of authoritarian governments, and the threats to rights protection from the climate crisis.

Chapter

Cover Civil Liberties & Human Rights

1. Introduction  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This introductory chapter provides an overview of the main themes covered in the present volume. It first considers the political context in which the discussion of the law is to take place. It then discusses human rights and civil liberties; the meaning of rights; protection of rights and liberties within the UK Constitution; the international context of the monitoring of human rights; and the European Convention on Human Rights.

Chapter

Cover The Changing Constitution

3. Human Rights and the UK Constitution  

Colm O’Cinneide

UK law relating to civil liberties and human rights has undergone radical transformation over the last few decades, in part because of the influence exerted by the European Convention on Human Rights (‘the ECHR’) on British law. The Human Rights Act 1998 (‘the HRA’), which incorporates the civil and political rights protected by the ECHR into national law, now plays a key role in the UK’s constitutional system. It complements legislative mechanisms for protecting individual rights—such as the Equality Act 2010 —and imposes significant constraints on the exercise of public power. However, the current state of UK human rights law is controversial. The HRA is regularly subject to political attack, while leading politicians bemoan the influence exerted by the ECHR over UK law: yet no consensus exists as to how human rights should best be protected within the framework of the British constitution. It remains to be seen whether Brexit will change the dynamics of this debate.

Chapter

Cover International Law

25. International Human Rights Law  

Nigel Rodley

This chapter considers the background to, and current developments concerning the manner in which international law has engaged with the protection of human rights, including both civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights. It looks at historical, philosophical, and political factors which have shaped our understanding of human rights and the current systems of international protection. It focuses on the systems of protection developed by and through the United Nations through the ‘International Bill of Rights’, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN human rights treaties and treaty bodies, and the UN Special Procedures as well as the work of the Human Rights Council. It also looks at the systems of regional human rights protection which have been established.

Chapter

Cover International Law

9. International human rights law  

This chapter discusses the system of human rights protection that has emerged since the end of the Second World War. It begins in Section 9.2 with the primary sources of human rights law before Section 9.3 discusses the different categories of human rights. Section 9.4 discusses the obligation on states to offer protection from acts of private actors. Section 9.5 provides an overview of the enforcement mechanisms in the UN and Section 9.6 focuses on the regional protection of human rights. Section 9.7 discusses the territorial scope of human rights treaties and Section 9.8 concerns the application of human rights in times of public emergency. Section 9.8 provides an overview of the international legal protection of refugees.

Chapter

Cover Murphy on Evidence

11. The rule against hearsay II  

Common law and statutory exceptions

This chapter discusses the statutory exceptions to the inadmissibility of hearsay evidence in criminal cases that were created by the Criminal Justice Act 2003. The impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 on the admissibility of hearsay evidence is discussed, including the important cases of Horncastle and Al-Khawaja and Tahery v United Kingdom, where the Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights came into conflict over whether an accused may be convicted where the ‘sole and decisive’ evidence against him is hearsay. The common law exceptions preserved by the Criminal Justice Act 2003 are then considered—res gestae. The chapter ends with discussion of the abolition of hearsay in civil proceedings by the Civil Evidence Act 1995.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

12. Article 6: right to a fair trial  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. Article 6 is the right to a fair trial. It looks at the scope of Article 6—the kinds of trial it deals with; and defines ‘determines’, ‘civil rights and obligations’, and ‘criminal charge’ for this purpose. It then goes on to consider the specific rights that are inherent in the idea of a hearing that is ‘fair’ and tribunal that is ‘independent’ and ‘impartial’. It also discusses the additional rights that are enjoyed by a defendant in a criminal trial. Of particular importance is the issue of adjusting the concept of ‘fairness’ to the circumstances, particularly in the context of threats to national security. The need to protect the essence of a right to a fair hearing where there are important public interests justifying restrictions is an issue that is at the heart of the Article 6 case law.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Concentrate

5. Right to liberty and right to fair trial  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the right to liberty and fair trial, which are not qualified rights but can be derogated from in times of war and emergency, and provides an overview of the European Convention on Human Rights’ (ECHR) Articles 5 and 6, the most commonly argued rights before the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Article 5 on the right to liberty and security of person protects individuals from unlawful and arbitrary detention, whereas Article 6 protects the rights to fair trial in both criminal and civil cases (with added protection in criminal cases). The ECtHR has expanded protection of Article 6 through its interpretation of ‘fair’ hearing and ‘civil’ rights and obligations. The chapter examines due process rights as part of UK law, including the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA).

Chapter

Cover Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, and Human Rights

18. Human Rights II: Emergent Principles  

This chapter presents an overview of the European Convention on Human Rights, an International treaty originating in the reconstruction of Europe’s political order following World War II. The chapter is organised as follows. Section I discusses the main procedural and substantive features of the Convention itself, whilst Section II assesses its status and use in English law up until (approximately) the early-1990s. Section III examines the leading judgments of the European Court on Human Rights in the areas of privacy and freedom of expression. The chapter goes on to consider how the UK constitution’s approach to the issue of civil liberties and human started to change in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Discussion focuses initially on the ways in which domestic courts began to use common law ideas to give increasing effect to the Convention’s provisions. The chapter then examines emerging arguments as to the benefits that might result from Parliament enacting a statute giving Convention articles a superior status to common law rules. The chapter then discusses the re-emergence and consolidation of fundamental human rights as an indigenous principle within the common law, and concludes by analysing the so-called ‘judicial supremacism’ controversy of the early and mid-1990s in which the courts’ increasingly forceful assertion of human rights ideas provoked substantial criticism from Conservative party politicians.

Chapter

Cover Sentencing and Punishment

11. Court orders for young offenders  

This chapter first considers the range of civil orders available to the courts in responding to anti-social or criminal behavior by children and young people. It therefore focusses on the criminal behaviour orders and injunctions as well as the community remedy. It then looks at the options available to the sentencing court in relation to criminal offending and so refers in particular to the referral order and the Youth Offender Panel, the youth rehabilitation order and the detention and training order. We note the welcome fall in the number of children in prison but note the increase in the average custodial sentence length. The chapter also discusses selected aspects of conditions in secure accommodation and reviews the role and achievements of using rights in responding to problematic issues.