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Chapter

This chapter briefly sets out the purpose of the present text, namely to outline how a civil dispute may be dealt with in the most effective way, using litigation in a modern context. The text offers a sound guide to all the rules and principles that are most important at each stage of the litigation process, and what skills and practical considerations are relevant. The chapter then considers changes relating to the litigation process brought about by Sir Rupert Jackson' Review of Civil Litigation Costs: Final Report published in January 2010. This is followed by discussions of the meaning of ‘effective’ litigation, the overriding objective of litigation, the changing legal environment, and the time and financial aspects of litigation.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter discusses the remedies that can be sought from the civil courts and how an appeal is made against a decision. It covers interim and final remedies; route of appeals; leave; the hearing; appeals to the Supreme Court; and examples of appeals. There are many different types of remedies that a court can award to a successful litigant. The most common form of remedy is that which is known as ‘damages’. Appeals in the civil courts follow a slightly more complicated structure than in criminal cases. In order to appeal in the civil cases it is usually necessary to seek permission before proceeding with a civil appeal. Save where it is a final decision in a multi-track case, the usual rule is that the appeal will be heard by the next most senior judge.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter discusses the remedies that can be sought from the civil courts and how an appeal is made against a decision. It covers interim and final remedies; route of appeals; leave; the hearing; appeals to the Supreme Court; and examples of appeals. There are many different types of remedies that a court can award to a successful litigant. The most common form of remedy is that which is known as ‘damages’. Appeals in the civil courts follow a slightly more complicated structure than in criminal cases. In order to appeal in the civil cases it is usually necessary to seek permission before proceeding with a civil appeal. Save where it is a final decision in a multi-track case, the usual rule is that the appeal will be heard by the next most senior judge.

Chapter

This chapter explores the ethical issues that arise around litigation. It discusses theories of litigation, including disputes over whether litigation is ‘good’. The chapter covers the adversarial system of litigation in England and Wales, and inquisitorial adjudication. It also covers both criminal and civil litigation proceedings. In addition, the chapter considers advocacy services and the duties that litigators owe to the court.

Chapter

In conducting civil litigation, expert evidence may be required to assist the lawyer in understanding the circumstances of the case, identifying a potential cause of action, evaluating the case and the potential remedies, understanding expert evidence provided for another party, and identifying weaknesses in their case. This chapter first considers the roles of experts in civil litigation. Experts can be involved in capacities such as conducting early neutral evaluation, decision-making, negotiation or mediation, as a witness in court, or as an assessor. When searching for an appropriate expert, lawyers can turn to relevant professional associations for guidance; and some professions also provide support to members who work as professional experts. The remainder of the chapter discusses the procedure for admitting expert evidence in litigation; the requirements for an expert report; and the contents and review of expert reports.

Chapter

Collecting and analysing evidence is often one of the most expensive elements of litigation. The approach to dealing with disclosure of evidence has been modified as part of the reforms introduced following the review carried out by Lord Justice Sir Rupert Jackson. The norm of standard disclosure has been replaced by options for the level of disclosure designed to ensure that disclosure is proportionate, which presents opportunities for saving costs and opens up some tactical considerations as regards the level of disclosure to seek and to offer. This chapter focuses on general principles and approaches that are most likely to be effective in preparing a case. It discusses the key rules of admissibility; questions of weight and reliability on the evidence presented; identifying what needs to be proved in a case; types of evidence; collecting evidence; disclosure of evidence; electronic disclosure of evidence; and reviewing and advising on evidence.

Chapter

This introductory chapter explains the philosophy of the book and its pedagogical features. It assists in broadening research skills and knowledge. Further, it introduces the Civil Procedure Rules. Finally, it highlights professional conduct considerations and how they are dealt with in this book.

Chapter

This introductory chapter explains the philosophy of the book and its pedagogical features. It assists in broadening research skills and knowledge. Further, it introduces the Civil Procedure Rules. Finally, it highlights professional conduct considerations and how they are dealt with in this book.

Chapter

This chapter discusses active case management and the use of sanctions. The Woolf reforms and more recently the Jackson reforms have supported the concept of active case management, the focus of which is to ensure that cases are dealt with ‘justly’ and ‘at proportionate cost’. The objectives of case management are set out in Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) Part 1 and the courts case management powers are in CPR Part 3. The powers of the court in relation to case management are wide and directions given after the issue of proceedings should provide a framework and timetable for dealing with a case right up to trial. The final section of the chapter deals with the sanctions that might be imposed where there is a failure to comply with case management requirements.

Chapter

Obtaining a judgment is not always the end of the process. A wholly or partly unsuccessful party in a trial will almost certainly wish to consider appealing. The procedure for appeal will vary depending on the type and level of decision appealed against. This chapter looks in particular at the procedure for appealing from the High Court to the Court of Appeal. The discussions cover the need for the client to decide whether to appeal against all or part of the judgment based on their lawyer's advice; jurisdiction for appeals; appeals from interim decisions; grounds for appeal; procedure for appealing; the position of the respondent to an appeal; presenting an appeal; powers on appeal; the appeal decision; and costs on appeal.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the role of the defendant. The litigation system in England is adversarial, thus on the face of it the role of the defendant is potentially defensive, confrontational, and non cooperative. While the objective of the defendant will usually be to make the claim go away, the perhaps natural desire to take an approach that involves denial, delay, and obfuscation wherever possible must be resisted, or at least carefully considered. The chapter discusses the main types of defence to an action; dealing with the early stages of an action when a claim form is received; rules for drafting a defence; making a counterclaim; claiming a set-off; a general framework for a defence and counterclaim; and strategies and tactics in defending a case.

Chapter

The enforcement of a judgment is an issue that must be considered and managed as part of the litigation project from the start. Keeping enforcement in mind at each stage of the litigation process ensures that any possible problems with enforcement are taken into account in any cost-benefit analysis or risk assessment. This chapter first outlines the steps to assist enforcement, which includes deciding who to sue, gathering information, interim orders, settling the case, and drafting orders. It then discusses the methods of enforcing a judgment, including third party debt orders, changing orders, attachment of earnings, winding up and bankruptcy, execution against goods, orders for delivery/possession, receivership, and the use of contempt of court proceedings. The final section deals with the international enforcement of judgements, specifically enforcing a foreign judgment in the UK and enforcing an English judgment in another country.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on funding options for litigation. Expense is one of the biggest issues relating to litigation. The high cost of litigation has perhaps been tolerated to some extent out of respect for the expertise of lawyers and because of problems in finding a consensus on how litigation is best funded. The detailed work of the Jackson Review of Civil Litigation Costs has provided a strong basis for development, and there have been numerous expressions of judicial concern with regard to the high level of costs. The chapter begins by considering the sources of legal expense, the parties that bear the expense, and the problems that arise with regard to the expense of litigations. It then discusses funding options for litigation, including self-funding, insurance, conditional fee agreements, damage-based agreements, third party funding, and public funding. It also presents options for funding alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the pre-action stage of the litigation process. Most civil disputes are settled prior to the issue of any proceedings. Save where a pre-issue application is appropriate, no court will be involved. Nonetheless the approach taken to resolving the dispute will be shaped to a significant extent by the view a court might take if proceedings were to be issued. The chapter discusses the Practice Direction Pre-Action Conduct, which seeks to enable parties to settle disputes without the need to start proceedings, and to support the efficient management by the; pre-action protocols, which set out the steps that the parties should follow before issuing proceedings; steps in preparing a case; forming the relationship with the other side; deciding when to issue proceedings; and portal claims.

Chapter

This chapter provides an overview of the main stages of the litigation process. It first describes the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 and the accompanying Practice Directions, which provide a basis for civil litigation, as well as the adversarial approach and the right to a fair trial. It then explains the various stages of the litigation process, beginning with the pre-action stage, which involves gathering appropriate information, evaluating the case, taking key decisions about framing the case, and building a working relationship with the other side. This is followed by discussions on starting an action; statements of case (i.e. defining the parties, the issues between the parties, and remedies sought); interim stages and case management; options for interrupting or ending litigation; preparations for trial; trial and judgment; and cases with an international element.

Chapter

Although a large percentage of civil cases are settled well in advance of trial, it remains important for legal representatives look to the possibility of running a case to trial. This chapter focuses on fast-track and multi-track cases that proceed to trial. It covers professional conduct issues; procedural and administrative preparation for trial; the day of the trial; judgment and appeals. It also discusses settlement without trial.

Chapter

Although a large percentage of civil cases are settled well in advance of trial, it remains important for legal representatives look to the possibility of running a case to trial. This chapter focuses on fast-track and multi-track cases that proceed to trial. It covers professional conduct issues; procedural and administrative preparation for trial; the day of the trial; judgment and appeals. It also discusses settlement without trial.

Chapter

This chapter considers the options open to a defendant faced with a claim against him. It covers the emotional responses of the defendant, as well as the defendant’s pre-action position. It discusses the way in which a defendant may fund the litigation. It details the essential steps needed to respond to a claim; the substantive responses to the action; and tactical responses to the claim.

Chapter

Costs management refers to the procedures used by the courts to manage the steps to be taken in civil proceedings while also managing the costs to be incurred by the parties in taking those steps to ensure that litigation is conducted at proportionate cost. This chapter discusses the elements of costs management; cases governed by costs management; costs management orders; costs budgets and case management; judicial control of costs budgets; and impact on costs orders.

Chapter

This chapter begins with a discussion of civil litigation reform. It focuses on the purpose of civil litigation. The application of the Civil Procedure Rules is detailed. Key features of civil practice in the courts, for example, the computation of time, are discussed. It considers the concept of the overriding objective and human rights and civil litigation.