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Chapter

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

This chapter charts the changing legal position of children. It starts by considering the former importance of the status of legitimacy and its near complete abolition. It then discusses the changing nature of the parent–child relationship and the development of the law from paternal authority to shared parental responsibility. Finally the chapter considers the developing notion of children’s autonomy and independent rights which has both limited the scope of legitimate parental authority and emphasised that the interests of children are a matter of public, as well as private, concern. This latter point is well illustrated by the growing importance of the role of the Children’s Commissioner.

Chapter

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

This chapter considers the increasingly important question of children’s participation in proceedings concerning them. It evaluates children’s right to participate in proceedings both as a matter of domestic and international law. It then assesses the complex law as to how children’s views are ascertained and the circumstances in which children will be represented both in private and public law. It then turns to children’s direct participation in family proceedings including children’s ability to initiate proceedings.

Chapter

N V Lowe and G Douglas

This chapter discusses the meaning of parental responsibility. It covers the international acceptance of the concept of parental responsibility; contexts in which parental responsibility is relevant; what parental responsibility comprises; liability for children's acts; and liability for interference with parents' and children's rights.

Chapter

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

This chapter considers the meaning and function of parental responsibility. It examines the content and limits of parental responsibility including in areas such as: education; medical treatment; corporal punishment; religious upbringing; and naming the child.

Chapter

N V Lowe and G Douglas

This chapter considers the question of who has parental responsibility, or put another way, who the holders of parental responsibility are. It begins by examining the allocation of parental responsibility at the child's birth and subsequent to the child's birth. It considers over whom such responsibility exists. It concludes by discussing the duration of parental responsibility; the position where responsibility is shared between different holders; the delegation of responsibility; and the legal position of those caring for a child without having parental responsibility.

Chapter

N V Lowe and G Douglas

One of the great shifts in English law governing the parent and child was the move away from treating children as passive victims of family breakdown towards regarding them as participants and actors in the family justice system. It is now generally accepted that children should have a voice or, at any rate, the opportunity of expressing a view in legal proceedings which concern them. This chapter begins by considering what obligation there is to take the child's views into account. It then discusses how those views are investigated; the law and practice governing the child's direct participation in legal proceedings concerning them; and the needs for and requirements of a child friendly family justice system. Finally, it looks at the role of the Commissioners for Children to look after children's interests more generally.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. This chapter considers children’s rights and private law relating to children. The first essay question focuses on the rights of the child to make his or her own decisions and to participate in private law proceedings, whilst the second examines how the law ensures that children have a relationship with both parents after separation. The third question is a problem scenario that requires discussion of orders under s. 8 of the Children Act 1989, the welfare principle, and the welfare checklist. The final problem question concerns inherent jurisdiction and the right of a child to refuse medical treatment.

Chapter

This chapter moves on from the previous chapter to ask: Do adults always know best? That is an important assumption that needs to be addressed in this area of family law. To what extent, and under what circumstances, do the opinions of children count? This chapter considers the legal principle upon which most cases relating to children are decided. That is, the welfare principle. The chapter considers whether this principle is compatible with an approach that respects children's rights. The chapter begins by defining what is meant by the welfare principle and considers in what cases the welfare principle applies and, conversely, in what cases the welfare principle does not apply. The spectrum of issues here might seem quite narrow but in fact they are much broader than might be first imagined. There are multiple considerations, theories, and contradictions at play.

Chapter

Helen Stalford, Seamus Byrne, and Nazia Yaqub

This chapter explores children’s rights in the context of family law and family life. It aims to look at family law through the lens of the human rights of children and the associated theoretical, doctrinal, and empirical scholarship. It begins with a brief overview of the international children’s rights framework underpinning this area, including the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the European Convention on Human Rights. It then points to some of the cultural, legal, and practical obstacles to the protection of children’s rights in the context of family law. The updated chapter responds to changes in the law arising as a result of Brexit and the recent legislative changes on corporal punishment across the different UK jurisdictions.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. This chapter considers children’s rights and private law relating to children. The first essay question focuses on the rights of the child to make his or her own decisions and to participate in private law proceedings, whilst the second examines how the law ensures that children have a relationship with both parents after separation. The third question is a problem scenario that requires discussion of orders under s. 8 of the Children Act 1989, the welfare principle, and the welfare checklist. The final problem question concerns inherent jurisdiction and the right of a child to refuse medical treatment.

Chapter

This chapter considers how the Children Act 1989 provided a legal framework within which the state can support children to remain with their families through difficult situations and intervene to protect them when they face unacceptable risks. The chapter starts by giving a brief history of child protection law. The chapter then looks at the inherent tension in protecting children while aspiring to support their life with their families, before considering local authorities' powers and duties, resources, and the ever-increasing numbers of children who are involved with social services, whether as c hildren in need, looked after children, or as subjects of child protection investigations or applications.

Chapter

This chapter examines the issues of capacity and parties in tort law. It explains that capacity refers to the status of legal persons and their ability to sue or be sued in tort and that a claimant’s injury might be caused by more than one person. Examples are given of the capacity to sue and be sued of companies and children. This chapter discusses also the point that any person successfully sued in tort can seek contribution from other joint or concurrent tortfeasors and this can be done in the course of the original action commenced by the claimant, or in separate proceedings between tortfeasors.

Chapter

N V Lowe and G Douglas

This chapter discusses the legal position of children. It first considers the relatively simple issues of who the law regards as a child and the meaning of ‘child of the family’. It then discusses the child's legal status; the changing nature of the parent-child relationship; and the still developing notion of the child's independent or autonomy rights.

Chapter

Helen Stalford and Seamus Byrne

This chapter explores children's rights in the context of family law and family life. It aims to look at family law through the lens of the human rights of children and the associated theoretical, doctrinal, and empirical scholarship. It begins with a brief overview of the international children's rights framework underpinning this area, including the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the European Convention on Human Rights. It then points to some of the cultural, legal, and practical obstacles to the protection of children's rights in the context of family law. It also discusses the issue of corporal punishment.

Chapter

This chapter examines the role of local authorities in protecting the child from harm and the orders available under the Children Act 1989, which are used in cases of alleged harm to children. It explains the nature of public child law proceedings and goes into detail to discuss the definition of the ‘threshold criteria’—the standard that the court uses to decide whether an order should be made. It also discusses the investigations which can be carried out by the local authority in relation to a child and parental contact with children in care, and compares a care order and a supervision order.

Chapter

This chapter examines the role of local authorities in protecting the child from harm and the orders available under the Children Act 1989, which are used in cases of alleged harm to children. It explains the nature of public child law proceedings and goes into detail to discuss the definition of the ‘threshold criteria’—the standard that the court uses to decide whether an order should be made. It also discusses the investigations which can be carried out by the local authority in relation to a child and parental contact with children in care, and compares a care order and a supervision order.

Chapter

This chapter considers the courts' powers under Part II of the Children Act 1989 to make orders, other than financial orders, in what are termed ‘family proceedings’. It first discusses the original scheme of Part II; changes made by the Children and Adoption Act 2006; and changes made by the Children and Families Act 2014. It then considers section 8 orders; family assistance orders; and section 37 directions.

Chapter

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

This chapter considers the courts’ powers under Part II of the Children Act 1989 to resolve family disputes concerning the upbringing of children. These disputes, commonly labelled ‘private law disputes’, are normally between the parents following divorce or separation but can involve other family members. It first discusses the original scheme of Part II; changes made by the Children and Adoption Act 2006; and changes made by the Children and Families Act 2014. It then considers section 8 orders; family assistance orders; and section 37 directions.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate; providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses children’s medical treatment. It looks at the limits of parental decision-making, and cases in which the courts have overruled parental wishes in order to protect the child’s best interests. Where parents cannot agree with each other about serious medical treatment, or where the treatment is especially controversial, decisions might also need to go before a court. Cases involving withdrawing or withholding life-prolonging treatment are also covered. In relation to mature minors, it discusses the concept of Gillick-competence and the difference that has arisen between the child’s right to consent to medical treatment and her much more limited right to refuse.

Chapter

N V Lowe and G Douglas

This chapter is concerned with the welfare principle, which the courts are called upon to apply when determining any question concerning a child's upbringing or the administration of his property. This is governed by Section 1 of the Children Act 1989. The discussions cover the paramountcy of the child's welfare; criticisms of the welfare principle; the importance of an ongoing relationship with both parents after family separation; delay prima facie prejudicial to the child's welfare; and the provision that the court ‘shall not make the order or any of the orders unless it considers that doing so would be better for the child than making no order at all’.