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Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Evidence

2. Burden and standard of proof: Presumptions  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flow charts. This chapter discusses the allocation of the burden of proof in civil and criminal trials, depending on who should bear the risk. In criminal trials the ‘presumption of innocence’ means that the burden is on the prosecution, unless reversed by express or implied statutory provision. The law of evidence safeguards what in some jurisdictions is a civil right backed by the constitution. It is important to understand the difference between the legal and evidential burden and the occasions where they are separately allocated. Tricky areas are where there is a divorce of the legal and evidential burden, primarily in situations where the prosecution cannot expect to put up evidence to anticipate every specific defence the accused may present.

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

2. Burden of proof  

This chapter focuses on the burden of proof and presumption of innocence in criminal and civil cases under Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It considers the influence of the UK’s Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) on the allocation of the burden of proof and compares legal/persuasive burden of proof with the evidential burden. It contains a detailed examSination of the case law under this Act and the criteria developed to assess where reverse burdens should apply. It draws on academic commentary in making this analysis. It also looks at situations where the legal and the evidential burden may be split. The leading cases on the standard of proof in civil cases are reviewed.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

2. Presumptions and the burden of proof  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the following: criminal and civil burdens of proof; the ‘legal burden of proof’ and the ‘evidential burden’; the ‘tactical burden’; the prosecution’s legal burden of proof in criminal cases; when the defendant in a criminal case bears the legal burden of proof; the standard of proof; the evidential burden; the judge’s ‘invisible burden’; the burden of proof when establishing the admissibility of evidence; presumptions and the incidence of the burden of proof; and reversal of the burden of proof and the European Convention on Human Rights.

Chapter

Cover Murphy on Evidence

5. Proof without evidence  

This chapter examines cases in which a court will, or may, find facts in issue or relevant facts established without requiring proof by means of evidence. Specifically, it considers cases in which: (a) facts are formally admitted for the purpose of the proceedings, i.e. are taken to be proved without the need for evidence; (b) notorious or readily demonstrable facts are noticed judicially by the court, i.e. are facts of which the court will acknowledge the truth without the necessity for proof; and (c) facts are presumed in favour of the party asserting them, i.e. where a party proves one fact (the primary fact) and a second fact (the presumed fact) will also be taken to have been proved, in the absence of evidence to the contrary.

Chapter

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence

III. Burdens and proof  

This chapter considers the burdens borne by both parties when an issue of fact is at stake. It explains how the nature of a burden in the law of evidence is obscured by the use of the term in a number of different senses. The two principal senses are the burden of adducing evidence and the burden of proving facts. In relation to each, questions arise as to its incidence and discharge. The chapter considers the allocation of the burden in these two senses, at common law and under statutory provisions, and the effects of presumptions of law or agreement of the parties. Finally, this chapter is concerned with the extent of the two burdens, and the way in which the burden of proof has to be explained to the jury.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

1. The basis of criminal liability  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses what criminal liability is and is not about; the meaning of burden of proof; and the reform of criminal law. The study of criminal law is the study of liability. It is not about whether a person can be charged with a crime, or what sentence he may face if convicted, but rather it deals with whether a person is innocent or guilty of an offence (ie whether or not he can be convicted). The burden of proof means the requirement on a party to adduce sufficient evidence to persuade the fact-finder (the magistrates or the jury), to a standard set by law, that a particular fact is true.

Chapter

Cover Textbook on Land Law

25. Freehold covenants  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on Land Law provides an accessible overview of one key area on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses covenants affecting freehold land. It covers the enforceability of covenants, including enforcement against later acquirers of land; the problem of positive covenants; remedies; the discharge of covenants; and proposals for reform of the law. It illustrates the law by reference to 17 and 18 Trant Way, two freehold properties previously owned by Olive Orange and sold by her subject to a number of covenants, and by reference to 20 Trant Way, a property development comprising several freehold bungalows which were individually sold subject to certain covenants.

Chapter

Cover Textbook on Land Law

25. Freehold covenants  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on Land Law provides an accessible overview of one key area on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses covenants affecting freehold land. It covers the enforceability of covenants, including enforcement against later acquirers of land; the problem of positive covenants; remedies; the discharge of covenants; and the proposals for reform of the law.

Book

Cover Murphy on Evidence

Richard Glover

Murphy on Evidence is firmly established as a leading text for use on undergraduate law courses and in preparation for professional examinations. Frequently consulted by judges and practitioners, and regularly cited in judgments, it has come to be regarded as a work of authority throughout the common law world. The book’s unique approach effectively bridges the gap between academic study of the law of evidence and its application in practice, combining detailed analysis of the law with a wealth of practical information about how it is used in the courtroom. As in previous editions, the author’s teaching method is centred around two realistic case studies—one criminal and one civil—presenting challenging evidence issues and questions for discussion at the end of each chapter. The case study material for this new edition has been further developed with new videos on the Online Resource Centre. Fully up to date with the latest developments in this fast-moving subject, the fifteenth edition of Murphy on Evidence is as indispensable as its predecessors. Topics include: the language of the law of evidence; the judicial function in the law of evidence; the burden and standard of proof; character evidence; and the rule against hearsay.

Chapter

Cover Complete Land Law

20. Freehold Covenants  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter discusses the difference between restrictive and positive covenants; the rules which govern the running of the burden of covenants; the rules regulating who initially has the right to enforce a covenant; the significance of s56 of the Law of Property Act 1925 and the impact of the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999; the rules regarding assignment of restrictive covenants; the concept ‘building scheme’; and whether a positive or restrictive covenant will pass to successors in title.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Criminal Law

9. Mental conditions, intoxication and mistake  

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

This chapter considers the most commonly occurring ‘mental condition defences’, focusing on the pleas of insanity, intoxication and mistake. The common law historically made a distinction between justification and excuse, at least in relation to homicide. It is said that justification relates to the rightness of the act but to excuse as to the circumstances of the individual actor. The chapter examines the relationship between mental condition defences, insanity and unfitness to be tried, and explains the Law Commission’s most recent recommendations for reforming unfitness and other mental condition defences. It explores the test of insanity, disease of the mind (insanity) versus external factor (sane automatism), insane delusions and insanity, burden of proof, function of the jury, self-induced automatism, intoxication as a denial of criminal responsibility, voluntary and involuntary intoxication, dangerous or non-dangerous drugs in basic intent crime and intoxication induced with the intention of committing crime.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

10. Leasehold Covenants  

This chapter considers covenants that exist in relation to leasehold land—also known as ‘leasehold covenants’. As the name suggests, these are promises made between landlords and their tenants and form the crucial foundation of this leasehold relationship. The chapter explores the nature and importance of leasehold covenants, how such covenants are enforced between the original parties, and enforceability where there are successors to the original parties. In view of changes to the law introduced by the Landlord and Tenant (Covenants) Act 1995, this chapter considers both the pre-1996 and post-1996 regimes for determining enforceability of leasehold covenants. Finally, the chapter discusses the important issue of remedies for landlords and tenants facing a breach of covenant.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

12. Freehold Covenants  

This chapter considers covenants that exist in relation to freehold land—also known as ‘freehold covenants’. As the name suggests, these are promises made between freehold owners of land. The chapter explores the nature of freehold covenants: how such covenants are created and enforced between the original parties and successive owners of the land, the role of law and equity and the role of remedies, and the legal and equitable rules. Finally, the chapter discusses how freehold covenants can be discharged and modified as well as reform of the law in this area.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

3. Bailment  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter deals with bailment, defined as a transaction under which a bailee lawfully receives possession of goods from a bailor for some purpose. Examples of bailment from commercial law include warehousing, carriage, the deposit of property to have work done on it, leasing, and pledge. A buyer under a sale or return transaction is, pending acceptance or rejection, a bailee of the goods. After explaining what a bailment is, the chapter considers types of bailment and three requirements for a bailment: transfer of possession; ownership remaining in the bailor, or at least not passing to the bailee; and consent by the bailee. It then examines the bailee’s liability and the burden of proof with respect to bailment before concluding with an analysis of bailment involving third parties, focusing in particular on sub-bailment.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

9. Problems of Invalidity  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter begins with a discussion of collateral proceedings, identifying the situations in which the court will and will not allow the issue of invalidity to be raised. It then explains the rules on partial invalidity, standard and burden of proof, and invalid and void administrative acts.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

2. Burden and Standard of Proof  

Chapter 2 is divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with the manner in which a dispute as to which party bears the burden of proving a particular issue in a trial should be resolved. The question may arise in a criminal trial as to whether it is the prosecution or defence which bears the burden of proving a certain issue, and in a civil trial as to whether it is the claimant or defendant who bears the burden of proving a certain issue. The second part focuses on the standard to which the burden of proving a particular issue requires to be discharged.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

9. Problems of Invalidity  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter begins with a discussion of collateral proceedings, identifying the situations in which the court will and will not allow the issue of invalidity to be raised. It then explains the rules on partial invalidity, standard and burden of proof, and invalid and void administrative acts.

Chapter

Cover Murphy on Evidence

4. The burden and standard of proof  

This first part of the chapter discusses the concept of burden of proof, covering the legal or persuasive burden of proof; the evidential burden; the effect of presumptions on the burden of proof; the legal burden of proof in civil cases; the evidential burden in civil cases; the burden of proof in criminal cases; defence burdens of proof before Lambert; defence burdens of proof after Lambert; and the burden of proof of secondary facts. The second part of the chapter discusses the standard of proof, covering standard of proof required of prosecution in criminal cases; standard of proof required of defence; standard of proof of secondary facts; the standard of proof in civil cases; and the standard of proof in matrimonial and family cases.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Directions

1. Introduction to criminal law  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter begins by addressing the question: What is a crime? It then discusses the difference between criminal law, the law of tort, and contract law; the function of criminal law; sources of criminal law; the classification of offences; the criminal justice process; the hierarchy of the criminal courts; the burden and standard of proof; and the elements of an offence.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

7. Privity of contract and third party rights  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter examines privity of contract, its relationship with consideration, and the ability of third parties to enforce contractual provisions for their benefit. The doctrine of privity of contract provides that the benefits of a contract can be enjoyed only by the parties to that contract and only parties can suffer the burdens of the contract. At common law, third party beneficiaries could not enforce a contractual provision in their favour so various devices were employed seeking to avoid privity. Statute now allows for direct third party enforcement but in limited circumstances. This chapter examines the background to privity and the attempted statutory reform in the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 as it has been interpreted in the case law. The chapter also discusses the common law means of avoiding privity as illustrated by the case law, e.g. agency, collateral contracts, and trusts of contractual obligations. Finally, it assesses the remedies available to the contracting party to recover on behalf of the third party beneficiary of the promise, including the narrow and broad grounds in Linden Gardens Trust. It concludes by briefly considering privity and burdens—and the exceptional situations where a burden can be imposed on a person who is not a party to the contract.