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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

39. Trial  

This chapter discusses the issues that need to be addressed in the period leading up to a trial. These include contacting witnesses to ensure their availability; obtaining witness summonses where appropriate; briefing trial counsel; agreeing and compiling trial bundles; and counsel preparing speeches, examination-in-chief, and cross-examination of witnesses.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

1. Introduction  

This introduction provides an overview of contracts and the law of contract. It first explains what the law of contract is about and why it matters before discussing the tasks of contract law. It then considers the role of debates in contract law, unity and diversity in contract law, and central issues in contract law. It also examines the main perspectives about contract that have influenced English law, including perspectives that used to be historically important. In particular, it explores the notions of bargains and the will. The chapter goes on to address two very different understandings of contracts: one that sees it primarily as a bundle of rights, and one that sees it as a relationship between the parties.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

13. Advocacy and mooting  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter focuses on advocacy skills required during academia and in practice. The section on academia considers persuasive oral communication and confidence. It provides guidance on how to succeed both in mooting and in criminal advocacy competitions. It examines how to undertake effective case analysis using the IRAC model, and how to prepare skeleton arguments and case bundles. Examples of skeleton arguments are provided. The section on professional advocacy considers professional roles, rights of audience, areas of practice and activities. It covers practicalities such as etiquette, dress, conduct and ethics. The progress made towards a move to digital courts is also explored.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

31. Preparing and presenting a case  

This chapter provides practical guidance to aid in the preparation and presentation of a case before an employment tribunal. Although it is primarily written from the point of view of the advocate at such a hearing, the material is also relevant to advisors, witnesses and the parties to a case. The text guides the parties to a tribunal case through the whole tribunal procedure from the very beginning. It covers fact management, understanding the law, starting the process—filling in claim and response forms, preparing a schedule of loss, negotiating a settlement, drafting witness statements, disclosure, preparing bundles and advocacy.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

17. Abuse of dominance (1): non-pricing practices  

This chapter considers abusive non-pricing practices under Article 102 TFEU and the Chapter II prohibition in the Competition Act 1998. It deals in turn with exclusive dealing agreements; tying; refusals to supply; abusive non-pricing practices that are harmful to the single market; and miscellaneous other non-pricing practices which might infringe Article 102 or the Chapter II prohibition. Reference is made where appropriate to the Commission’s Guidance on the Commission’s Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article [102 TFEU] to Abusive Exclusionary Conduct by Dominant Undertakings.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

18. Abuse of dominance (2): pricing practices  

This chapter considers abusive pricing practices under Article 102 TFEU and the Chapter II prohibition in the Competition Act 1998. It discusses cost concepts used in determining whether a price is abusive and deals with excessive pricing; conditional rebates; bundling; predatory pricing; margin squeeze; price discrimination; and practices harmful to the single market. Price discrimination may be both exploitative and exclusionary and an excessively high price may be a way of preventing parallel imports or excluding a competitor from the market; but the division may provide helpful insights into the way in which the law is applied in practice. In each section the application of Article 102 by the European Commission and the EU Courts is considered, followed by cases in the UK. Where appropriate, reference is made to the Commission’s Guidance on the Commission’s Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article [102 TFEU] to Abusive Exclusionary Conduct by Dominant Undertakings.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

13. Advocacy and mooting  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter focuses on advocacy, mooting, and communication skills. The section on advocacy skills considers the preparation and use of skeleton arguments and case bundles.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

7. Article 102 TFEU: Conduct Which Can be an Abuse  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter discusses the difficult concept of what constitutes an ‘abuse’ of a dominant position for the purposes of Article 102. It considers the case law of the EU Courts, the decisional practice of the Commission, and the Commission’s Guidance Paper on enforcement priorities, and the problem of distinguishing competition on the merits from illegitimate conduct. The chapter looks at the different classifications of abuse, particularly exclusionary and exploitative abuses; the distinction between form- and effects-based approaches to types of abuse; the leveraging of market power between distinct markets as a theory of harm; the objective justification defence; and general issues in respect of abuses concerning prices, including the ‘as efficient competitor’ test. The chapter then examines the application of Article 102 to various forms of conduct, including: price discrimination; predatory pricing; selective low pricing; margin squeeze; exclusive dealing; tying and bundling; refusal to supply; self-preferencing; malicious pursuit of legal proceedings; ‘regulatory gaming’; discrimination abuses; unfairly high and low pricing; and hindering inter-Member State trade.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

7. Article 102 TFEU: Conduct Which Can Be an Abuse  

This chapter discusses the difficult concept of what constitutes an ‘abuse’ of a dominant position for the purposes of Article 102 and whether conduct should be condemned on account of the form it takes or only for its effects. It considers the case law of the EU Courts, the decisional practice of the Commission, and the Commission’s Guidance Paper on enforcement priorities, and the problem of distinguishing competition on the merits from illegimate conduct. The chapter looks at the different classifications of abuse, particularly exclusionary and exploitative abuses; the distinction between form- and effects-based approaches to types of abuse; the leveraging of market power between distinct markets as a theory of harm; the objective justification defence; and general issues in respect of abuses concerning prices, including the ‘as efficient competitor’ test. The chapter then examines the application of Article 102 to various forms of conduct, including: price discrimination; predatory pricing; selective low pricing; margin squeeze; exclusive dealing;; tying and bundling; refusal to supply; self-preferencing; malicious pursuit of legal proceedings; ‘regulatory gaming’; discrimination abuses; unfairly high and low pricing; hindering inter-Member State trade; and more novel claimed abuses within the digital economy.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

17. Abuse of dominance (1): non-pricing practices  

This chapter considers abusive non-pricing practices under Article 102 TFEU and the Chapter II prohibition in the Competition Act 1998. It deals in turn with exclusive dealing agreements; tying; refusals to supply; abusive non-pricing practices that are harmful to the single market; and miscellaneous other non-pricing practices which might infringe Article 102 or the Chapter II prohibition. Reference is made to the case-law of the Court of Justice and the Commission’s Guidance on the Commission’s Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article [102 TFEU] to Abusive Exclusionary Conduct by Dominant Undertakings

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

18. Abuse of dominance (2): pricing practices  

This chapter considers abusive pricing practices under Article 102 TFEU and the Chapter II prohibition in the Competition Act 1998. It first discusses various cost concepts used in determining whether a price is abusive. It then deals in turn with excessive pricing; conditional rebates; bundling; predatory pricing; margin squeeze; price discrimination; and practices that are harmful to the single market. This taxonomy is over-schematic, in that the categories overlap with one another: for example price discrimination may be both exploitative and exclusionary, and an excessively high price may in reality be a way of preventing parallel imports or of excluding a competitor from the market; nevertheless this division may provide helpful insights into the way in which the law is applied in practice. In each section the application of Article 102 by the European Commission and by the EU Courts will be considered first, followed by cases in the UK. Reference will be made where appropriate to the Commission’s Guidance on the Commission’s Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article [102 TFEU] to Abusive Exclusionary Conduct by Dominant Undertakings.