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Chapter

Cover Banking Law and Regulation

4. Banks and finance  

Iris Chiu and Joanna Wilson

This chapter focuses on the other core function of the banking business alongside taking in deposits from customers: lending. The traditional forms of lending include overdrafts, fixed-term loans, and syndicated loans. An overdraft generally involves an extension of credit by a bank to its customer via the customer’s current account. A fixed-term loan, as the name suggests, is a loan made for a fixed period of time. Meanwhile, a syndicated loan involves two or more banks that each contributes towards making a single loan to a borrower. The chapter then considers lender liability and the different forms of security a bank can use to realise the repayment of a loan in the event of default by the borrower. It also looks at recent innovations in the lending market that offer a competitive alternative to traditional bank lending, including payday lending and peer-to-peer lending.

Chapter

Cover Principles of Banking Law

4. Fundamental Principles of Bank Supervision and the Lender of Last Resort—A Reconceptualization  

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter examines the architecture and functions of bank supervision. Bank supervision is the process through which compliance with discussed prudential, conduct, and systemic regulations is safeguarded and enforced. It is normally exercised by public agencies that have the competence to approve the establishment and operation of credit institutions and monitor continuous compliance with the requisite regulatory framework. The same public bodies are also vested with remedial (early intervention) and enforcement powers in the event of a breach of any of the above. The chapter covers the fundamental principles of financial supervision; bank supervisors' accountability and judicial review; bankers' conduct, money laundering, and terrorist financing; and the central bank as the lender of last resort to the banking system.

Chapter

Cover Principles of Banking Law

14. Lending  

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter considers lending in liberalized markets, where banks enjoy greater autonomy in their choice of borrower, the terms on which they lend, and the exercise of remedies on a borrower's default. It focuses on commercial lending by banks, and thus does not consider the additional issues that arise in relation to consumer lending. Commercial lending by banks can take various forms. Bankers often use the generic term ‘facility’ to describe them all. The most basic is the term loan, where a specified maturity date sets the time for ultimate repayment. The chapter discusses the negotiation of the agreement for commercial loan facilities; the facility and its repayment; conditions precedent, representations and warranties, covenants; the negative pledge and pari passu clauses; and default.

Chapter

Cover Principles of Banking Law

18. Security  

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter discusses security in lending. Lending is in some cases unsecured, where the standing of the borrower is such that the banks cannot demand it or, because of the creditworthiness of the borrower, do not regard it as necessary. However, much international lending is now oriented towards particular projects, and security is taken. Security is often required so that the bank can recoup itself out of the collateral in the event of default. In relation to project financings, the security required by the banks will often be of a comprehensive nature; for example a fixed and floating charge, a charge over shares, a legal assignment of material contracts, and so on. With syndicated lending, the security might be granted in favour of a security trustee to hold to the benefit of the members of the lending syndicate. Within a corporate group, each member may contribute to the security, and there will be cross-guarantees.