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Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

16. Company Law I  

Formation and Finance

This chapter explains how companies limited by shares are formed and looks at the contents of companies’ constitutions. The discussions cover the role of promoters in setting up a company and the meaning of a company ‘off the shelf’. The chapter examines the steps and documentation necessary to register a new company limited by shares and the rules relating to a company’s name. It discusses the constitutional documents of a company and the rules relating to its constitution. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the financing of companies. It examines the different types of shares and the issuing of shares. It also considers debentures and charges.

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

3. The constitution of the company  

This chapter discusses the company constitution. A company’s constitution consists primarily of the articles of association and agreements and resolutions affecting the company’s constitution. The constitution forms a statutory contract between the company and its members, and between the members themselves, but only those provisions relating to membership rights will constitute terms of the statutory contract. A company can alter its articles by passing a special resolution, although statute and the common law restrict a company’s ability to alter its articles.

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

3. The constitution of the company  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the company constitution. A company’s constitution consists primarily of the articles of association and agreements and resolutions affecting the company’s constitution. The constitution forms a statutory contract between the company and its members, and between the members themselves, but only those provisions relating to membership rights will constitute terms of the statutory contract. A company can alter its articles by passing a special resolution, although statute and the common law restrict a company’s ability to alter its articles.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

3. The Corporate Constitution  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter discusses the company’s constitution, which can be a popular area for examination questions. The chapter focuses on the company’s articles of association, considering in particular alteration of the articles and the legal effect of the articles (the ‘statutory contract’). The chapter also considers shareholder agreements, which are often used as a supplement to the company’s constitution.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

5. The constitution of the company  

This chapter explores the various sources of a company’s constitution, how the constitution is amended and interpreted, and how the constitution can be enforced. A company’s constitution includes its articles, all resolutions and agreements affecting the company’s constitution, and other constitutional documents. All companies must have a memorandum of association, but its importance is now much reduced. As such, the articles of association form the principal constitutional document and set out the internal rules by which the company is to be run. The articles can be amended by passing a special resolution, but both statute and the common law impose limits on a company’s ability to amend its articles. Meanwhile, section 33 of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006) provides that the company’s constitution forms a contract between the company and its members, and between the members themselves.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

5. The company constitution  

This chapter focuses on the company constitution, essentially the articles of association. The chapter covers the need for articles (including the adoption of the model articles), amending the articles, interpreting the articles, enforcing the articles, and shareholders’ agreements. It particularly considers the extent to which shareholders can alter the articles and the common law limits to the power to do so. Altering the articles to allow for the compulsory transfer of members’ interests is also considered. Interpreting the articles and enforcing the statutory contract created is addressed. Shareholder agreements can provide better protection for shareholders and the chapter considers how they can supplement the company's articles.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law

4. Articles of association  

This chapter deals with articles of association, the principal element of a company’s constitution, under the Companies Act 2006. It describes the content of the articles, model articles of association which can be adopted by limited companies (either in whole or in part) on registration, and the function of articles as a contract between the company and its members and between the members themselves. It also considers provisions of articles that may be incorporated in other contracts and the right of members of a company to amend its articles. The chapter discusses a number of particularly significant court cases, including Allen v Gold Reefs of West Africa Ltd [1900] 1 Ch 656 and Quin and Axtens Ltd v Salmon [1909] AC 442.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French, and Ryan on Company Law

4. Articles of association  

This chapter deals with articles of association, the principal element of a company’s constitution, under the Companies Act 2006. It describes the content of the articles, model articles of association which can be adopted by limited companies (either in whole or in part) on registration, and the function of articles as a contract between the company and its members and between the members themselves. It also considers provisions of articles that may be incorporated in other contracts and the right of members of a company to amend its articles. The chapter discusses a number of particularly significant court cases, including Allen v Gold Reefs of West Africa Ltd [1900] 1 Ch 656 and Quin and Axtens Ltd v Salmon [1909] AC 442.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

8. The constitution of the company: dealing with insiders  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the constitution of the company, with emphasis on the articles of association. It first outlines the operation of the memorandum and the articles before turning to the law surrounding the contract of membership under s 33 of the Companies Act 2006. It then considers some elements of corporate theory in relation to the articles of association, contract between the company and the members, contract between the members, the question of who is entitled to sue to enforce the s 33 contract, and the issue of outsider rights with respect to the s 33 contract. The chapter also looks at the historical reforms proposed by the Company Law Review Steering Group for the Companies Act 2006 and concludes by analysing the effects of shareholder agreements on the statutory obligation of the company.

Book

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law
The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes: typical questions; suggested answers with commentary; illustrative diagrams; guidance on how to develop your answer; key debates; suggestions for further reading; and advice on exams and coursework. Concentrate Q&A Company Law offers expert advice on what to expect from your company law exam and coursework, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by an experienced examiner, it provides: reminders of points to consider; indications of key debates for each topic; exam-length suggested answers; clear commentary with each answer; diagram answer plans; cautionary points; tips to make your answer stand out from the crowd; and annotated further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical company law exam questions; structure and write a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; develop and demonstrate your understanding; identify connections between topics; and find relevant and helpful further reading. As well as separate chapters on exam skills and preparing coursework, it covers: companies and corporate personality; the corporate constitution; shares and shareholders; directors’ duties; company management and governance; minority shareholder remedies; corporate liability (contracts, torts, and crimes); share capital; loan capital; and corporate insolvency. The book is suitable for undergraduate students taking a module in company law on the LLB and GDL, and undergraduate students studying aspects of company law on other degreecourses.