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Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

26. Arbitration  

This chapter discusses arbitration, which is an adjudicative dispute resolution process. It is based on an agreement between the parties to refer a dispute or difference between them to impartial arbitrators for a decision. As a consequence of the contractual basis of arbitration, it is not every dispute that can go to arbitration. The chapter considers the requirements for an effective reference to arbitration, but it should be noted that the agreement to arbitrate may be made before or after the relevant dispute has arisen. This means that there may be a pre-existing arbitration agreement which, when a dispute arises, one of the parties wishes to evade. There is a strong public policy in favour of upholding arbitration agreements; this is supported by the idea that an arbitration clause in a contract is separable from the rest of the substantive contract. Arbitrations in England and Wales are governed by the Arbitration Act 1996, which lays down a highly developed set of procedures for arbitrations.


Cover Contract Law

12. Boilerplate Clauses  

This chapter examines some standard clauses found in commercial contracts today (often known as ‘boilerplate clauses’). The focus is on commercial contracts and terms that will, in all probability, have been drafted by lawyers. After first setting out some general considerations that relate to the structure of modern contracts, the discussion moves on to examine some standard form clauses to be found in such contracts. These include general clauses, retention of title clauses, price escalation clauses, clauses making provision for the payment of interest, force majeure clauses, choice of law clauses, arbitration clauses, jurisdiction clauses, hardship clauses, entire agreement clauses, no oral modification clauses, termination clauses, assignment, and, albeit briefly, exclusion and limitation clauses.