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Chapter

This chapter, which examines the role of the criminal justice system in England and Wales, begins with a short overview of the system as a whole, followed by individual sections on its main components. These include the police, the Crown Prosecution Service, the courts, the sentencing and the correctional system, the youth justice system, and the right of appeal.

Book

Alisdair Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

The English Legal System presents the main areas of the legal system and encourages a critique of the wider aspects of how law is made and reformed. The book is structured in five parts. Part I looks at the sources of law including domestic and international sources. Part II looks at the courts and the practitioners. It considers the structure of the courts and tribunals, judges and judicial independence, and the legal professions. Part III examines the criminal justice system. It begins by looking at police powers and the decision to charge and prosecute a suspect. It describes issues related to lay justice, trials, and criminal appeals, including access to justice and legal aid. The next part is about the civil justice system. It looks at civil litigation, remedies, appeals and alternative dispute resolution, as well as the funding of civil litigation. The final part looks to the future.

Book

Alisdair Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

The English Legal System presents the main areas of the legal system and encourages a critique of the wider aspects of how law is made and reformed. The book is structured in five parts. Part I looks at the sources of law including domestic and international sources. Part II looks at the courts and the practitioners. It considers the structure of the courts and tribunals, judges and judicial independence, the legal professions, and legal aid. Part III examines the criminal justice system. It describes issues related to lay justice, trials, and criminal appeals. The next part is about the civil justice system. It looks at civil litigation, remedies, appeals and alternative dispute resolution, as well as the funding of civil litigation. The final part looks to the future.

Chapter

Jennifer Seymour, Clare Firth, Lucy Crompton, Helen Fox, Frances Seabridge, Susan Wigglesworth, and Elizabeth Smart

This chapter provides an introduction to some of the essential principles of revenue law and to the main taxes studied on the LPC. It covers the main taxes; the sources of tax law; who pays tax; the administration of the tax system; and appeals against tax decisions.

Chapter

This chapter outlines the framework for enforcement of European Union (EU) law, and describes the various actions that may be brought before the Court of Justice (CJ). In interpreting the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the CJ has played a key role in the enforcement of EU law especially with its insistence on the effective protection of individuals’ Union rights. The chapter also explains the significance of judicial review in the EU legal order by focusing on the jurisdiction of the CJ in the appeal cases originating from the General Court (GC). Finally, the chapter outlines how questions of infringement of EU law can also be raised in the national legal system.

Chapter

Clare Firth, Jennifer Seymour, Lucy Crompton, Helen Fox, Frances Seabridge, Jennifer Seymour, and Elizabeth Smart

This chapter provides an introduction to some of the essential principles of revenue law and to the main taxes studied on the LPC. It covers the main taxes; the sources of tax law; who pays tax; the administration of the tax system; and appeals against tax decisions.

Chapter

This chapter examines the appeals system, the most important purpose of which from the legal system’s point of view is the development and clarification of the law. Reviewing the law in this way allows the higher courts to exert some control over the lower courts and adds much to an understanding of the forces shaping the appeals system. From the point of view of litigants, appeals offer a chance to challenge a result they are unhappy with. The chapter discusses restrictions on appeal rights; challenging jury verdicts; due process appeals; post-appeal review of convictions by the Criminal Cases Review Commission; miscarriages of justice, prosecution appeals; and double jeopardy and retrials.

Chapter

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter outlines the court system of England & Wales, first explaining key themes and concepts that are essential for understanding the structure and mechanics of the English courts. It then discusses the criminal courts and civil courts of England and Wales; other courts and forums that have significance in the English legal system, such as the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice, but are not part of the English court system; and alternatives to litigation (alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, Ombudsmen, and negotiation).

Chapter

This chapter discusses the civil and commercial justice systems. It considers the purpose of the civil justice system and also covers the use of alternative dispute resolution and the incentives to keep disputes out of the court. It looks at the court structure, the county court, the High Court, the newly created Business and Property Courts of England and Wales, and other courts and offices. It considers possible changes that may follow the courts and tribunals transformation project. It also considers routes of appeal and the work of the appeal courts.