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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

26. Challenging a Judgment  

Obtaining a judgment is not always the end of the process. A wholly or partly unsuccessful party in a trial will almost certainly wish to consider appealing. The procedure for appeal will vary depending on the type and level of decision appealed against. This chapter looks in particular at the procedure for appealing from the High Court to the Court of Appeal. The discussions cover the need for the client to decide whether to appeal against all or part of the judgment based on their lawyer's advice; jurisdiction for appeals; appeals from interim decisions; grounds for appeal; procedure for appealing; the position of the respondent to an appeal; presenting an appeal; powers on appeal; the appeal decision; and costs on appeal.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

50. Appeals  

This chapter considers the structure of non-family civil appeals. It covers routes of appeal; permission to appeal; time for appealing; procedure on appealing; respondent’s notice; applications within appeals stay; striking out appeal notices and setting aside or imposing conditions; hearing of appeals; appeal court’s powers; appeals by way of case stated; and appeals to the Supreme Court.

Chapter

Cover Immigration & Asylum Law

7. Challenging decisions: appeals, administrative and judicial review  

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, and Rowena Moffatt

This chapter discusses the development of the current structure of the appeals bodies—the Appeal Tribunal and the Special Immigration Appeals Commission (SIAC)—and their procedure. It sets out the limited rights of appeal following the implementation of the Immigration Act 2014. It has sections on administrative review and judicial review. The chapter also considers whether there is a right to a fair hearing in immigration and asylum decisions. It concludes with a section on immigrants and asylum seekers’ access to legal representation, including funding.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Criminal Law

21. Appeals and enforcement  

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

The right of defendants to appeal against conviction or sentence is normally regarded as a fundamental human right. At present this right is laid down in numerous international treaties on human rights, as well as in the Statutes of international courts. The notion and purpose of appellate proceedings vary in national systems. Subject to a number of specifications and exceptions, in civil law countries, that is countries of Romano-Germanic legal tradition, these proceedings amount largely to a retrial by a court of appeal. In contrast, in most common law countries appellate proceedings do not lead to a retrial. Appeals courts, which do not have any jury, do not review facts, but decide on the basis of the trial record. In international criminal proceedings neither the common law system nor the civil law model have been upheld. Rather, a mixed system has been accepted, which is discussed in this chapter.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System

18. Criminal and civil appeals  

As seen in previous chapters, the appeal court system in England and Wales is hierarchical. This chapter is concerned with the various mechanisms by which the decisions of courts may be appealed or reviewed. It explores the grounds for appeals in criminal cases, including the concepts of ‘fresh evidence’ and ‘lurking doubt’. If a criminal appeal has been dismissed, the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC), which was set up to examine potential miscarriages of justice, may refer a case back to the appeal court in certain circumstances. The chapter highlights some of the criticisms of the CCRC’s role and effectiveness. The avenues of appeal in civil cases are also discussed.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

18. Remedies and Appeals  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter discusses the remedies that can be sought from the civil courts and how an appeal is made against a decision. It covers interim and final remedies; route of appeals; leave; the hearing; appeals to the Supreme Court; and examples of appeals. There are many different types of remedies that a court can award to a successful litigant. The most common form of remedy is that which is known as ‘damages’. Appeals in the civil courts follow a slightly more complicated structure than in criminal cases. In order to appeal in the civil cases it is usually necessary to seek permission before proceeding with a civil appeal. Save where it is a final decision in a multi-track case, the usual rule is that the appeal will be heard by the next most senior judge.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

18. Remedies and Appeals  

This chapter discusses the remedies that can be sought from the civil courts and how an appeal is made against a decision. It covers interim and final remedies; route of appeals; leave; the hearing; appeals to the Supreme Court; and examples of appeals. There are many different types of remedies that a court can award to a successful litigant. The most common form of remedy is that which is known as ‘damages’. Appeals in the civil courts follow a slightly more complicated structure than in criminal cases. In order to appeal in the civil cases, it is usually necessary to seek permission before proceeding with a civil appeal. Save where it is a final decision in a multi-track case, the usual rule is that the appeal will be heard by the next most senior judge.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK

7. Procedure: complaints and third-party rights  

This chapter focuses on the rights of those wishing to take action against an infringement of competition law, potentially with a view to being compensated for the harm they may have suffered. One option is going to the relevant competition authority and filing a complaint to trigger the public enforcement route, saving the cost of litigation. The other option is to seek competition law enforcement in private claims before the courts. Claimants may seek damages or other remedies, including injunctions. In the UK, damages may be sought before the Competition Appeals Tribunal (CAT) and before the national courts. Collective claims can only be brought before the CAT. The number of private actions is increasing, and efforts have been made both by the EU and UK legislators to encourage more private litigation.

Chapter

Cover Immigration & Asylum Law

11. The asylum process  

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, and Rowena Moffatt

This chapter describes the asylum process from application through to the cessation of refugee status. The first two sections deal with entering the UK to claim asylum, and with the asylum application and decision-making, while the third explores the different routes through which an asylum claim can be processed, including ‘safe’ country of origin provisions and non-suspensive appeals, and returns to third countries pursuant to the Dublin Regulation. The fourth section concerns penalties connected with seeking asylum. The final sections cover remedies for the victims of trafficking, and other procedures after appeal rights are exhausted, or asylum has been granted.

Chapter

Cover Learning Legal Rules

5. The Doctrine of Judicial Precedent  

This chapter examines the use of case law to solve legal problems. In the study and practice of law we seek to analyse legal principles; and the ‘principles’ in English law are derived from pure case law or from case law dealing with statutes. The discussions cover the idea of binding precedent (stare decisis); establishing the principle in a case; the mechanics of stare decisis; whether there are any other exceptions to the application of stare decisis to the Court of Appeal that have emerged since 1944; whether every case has to be heard by the Court of Appeal before it can proceed to the Supreme Court; precedent in the higher courts; other courts; and the impact of human rights legislation.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

16. Criminal Appeals  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter examines under what circumstances someone is entitled to appeal and how that appeal is heard. The discussions cover summary trials or trials on indictment; appeals from a summary trial; appeal from a trial on indictment; appeal following an acquittal; appeal against sentence; appeals to the Supreme Court; and the Criminal Cases Review Commission. The paths of appeals differ depending on the mode of trial of the original criminal hearing. There are two potential criminal appeal avenues from a summary trial: either to the Divisional Court (by way of case stated or (exceptionally) judicial review) or to the Crown Court. An appeal ordinarily requires leave (permission) but appealing to the Crown Court from the magistrates’ court does not require leave.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

16. Criminal Appeals  

This chapter examines under what circumstances someone is entitled to appeal and how that appeal is heard. The discussions cover summary trials or trials on indictment; appeals from a summary trial; appeal from a trial on indictment; appeal following an acquittal; appeal against sentence; appeals to the Supreme Court; and the Criminal Cases Review Commission. The paths of appeals differ depending on the mode of trial of the original criminal hearing. There are two potential criminal appeal avenues from a summary trial: either to the Divisional Court (by way of case stated or (exceptionally) judicial review) or to the Crown Court. An appeal ordinarily requires leave (permission) but appealing to the Crown Court from the magistrates’ court does not require leave.

Chapter

Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

7. Framework for Enforcement  

This chapter outlines the framework for enforcement of European Union (EU) law, and describes the various actions that may be brought before the Court of Justice (CJ). In interpreting the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the CJ has played a key role in the enforcement of EU law, especially with its insistence on the effective protection of individuals’ Union rights. The chapter also explains the significance of judicial review in the EU legal order by focusing on the jurisdiction of the CJ in the appeal cases originating from the General Court (GC). Finally, the chapter outlines how questions of infringement of EU law can also be raised in the national legal system.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

4. Due process  

This chapter explains the overlapping ideas of natural justice, procedural fairness, and due process, and discusses the importance of comity between judges and administrative agencies. The elements of process are outlined: notice and disclosure, oral hearings, waiver, reconsideration, and appeals. Proportionality is presented as a general principle of the procedural duties of public authorities, and the chapter explains the three process values: procedural requirements can improve decisions, treat people with respect, and subject the administration to the rule of law. The chapter explains the irony of process: the law must sometimes require procedures that impose disproportionate burdens on administrative authorities, in order to protect due process. The chapter concludes with an explanation of discretion in process and of the potential dangers involved in administrative processes.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

3. The court system of England & Wales  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter outlines the courts and tribunals system of England & Wales, first explaining key themes and concepts that are essential for understanding the structure and mechanics of English courts and tribunals. It then discusses the criminal courts and civil courts of England and Wales; it then focusses on other courts and forums that have significance in the English legal system, but which are not part of the English court system. The most significant of these are the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice, and alternatives to litigation (alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, Ombudsmen, and negotiation).

Chapter

Cover Sanders & Young's Criminal Justice

11. When things go wrong in the criminal justice process  

In this chapter, we identify and critically evaluate the kind of things that can go wrong in the criminal justice process and describe the institutional architecture used to regulate the actions and effects of criminal justice practitioners and to hold them to account. The focus of the chapter is on the organisational, legal and democratic regulatory and accountability mechanisms associated with the police, courts and CPS. Specifically the chapter covers: Police and Crime Commissioners; citizen- and volunteer-led forms of accountability/regulation; royal commissions, public inquiries and independent inquiries; police complaints processes and inspectorates; trial remedies and appeals; the Criminal Cases Review Commission; civil proceedings; inquests and Coronial Courts.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

20. The criminal justice system  

Steve Uglow

This chapter, which examines the role of the criminal justice system in England and Wales, begins with a short overview of the system as a whole, followed by individual sections on its main components. These include the police, the Crown Prosecution Service, the courts, the sentencing and the correctional system, the youth justice system, and the right of appeal.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

12. Appeals, reviews, and retrials  

This chapter examines the appeals system, the most important purpose of which from the legal system’s point of view is the development and clarification of the law. Reviewing the law in this way allows the higher courts to exert some control over the lower courts and adds much to an understanding of the forces shaping the appeals system. From the point of view of litigants, appeals offer a chance to challenge a result they are unhappy with. The chapter discusses restrictions on appeal rights; challenging jury verdicts; due process appeals; post-appeal review of convictions by the Criminal Cases Review Commission; miscarriages of justice, prosecution appeals; and double jeopardy and retrials.

Chapter

Cover Steiner & Woods EU Law

7. Framework for enforcement  

This chapter outlines the framework for enforcement of European Union (EU) law, and describes the various actions that may be brought before the Court of Justice (CJ). In interpreting the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the CJ has played a key role in the enforcement of EU law especially with its insistence on the effective protection of individuals’ Union rights. The chapter also explains the significance of judicial review in the EU legal order by focusing on the jurisdiction of the CJ in the appeal cases originating from the General Court (GC). Finally, the chapter outlines how questions of infringement of EU law can also be raised in the national legal system.

Chapter

Cover Bromley's Family Law

9. Financial Remedies: Principles and Assessment  

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

Most of the legislation governing the financial arrangements on the ending of a marriage dates back over 40 years, when attitudes and economic and social factors affecting marriage were very different. This chapter examines courts’ attempts to keep the law in step with societal changes through case law. It considers the statutory criteria; the principles developed from case law; the current approach of the courts; private ordering between the parties; and how the orders made by the courts are altered in the light of subsequent events. It concludes by discussing proposals for reform.