The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter discusses the company’s constitution, which can be a popular area for examination questions. The chapter focuses on the company’s articles of association, considering in particular alteration of the articles and the legal effect of the articles (the ‘statutory contract’). The chapter also considers shareholder agreements, which are often used as a supplement to the company’s constitution.
This chapter discusses: members’ rights and duties under the Companies Act 2006 and the company’s constitution; the problems in dividing power between the company’s members and directors, and the consequences of that division; the rules of interpretation that apply to constitutional documents; the practical exercise of the decision-making powers given to members, including the formalities of meetings and the possibility of informal agreements; the legal constraints on the exercise of power by shareholders; and the enforcement of the constitution by the members, and their potential use of shareholders’ agreements to achieve what they cannot achieve via the articles.