1-20 of 20 Results

  • Keyword: allocation x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Pearce & Stevens' Trusts and Equitable Obligations

27. Discretionary trusts  

This chapter considers the key features of a discretionary trust. Unlike a fixed trust, which gives defined shares to the beneficiaries, a discretionary trust gives the trustees a discretion as to how to allocate the beneficial interests. They are mechanisms by which an owner of property can grant to others the power to allocate a fund among a defined class or group. As in a power of appointment, the allocator has complete discretion as to how the fund should be allocated, either, or both, in terms of the persons who should receive shares of the fund and the size of the shares they should receive. However, unlike mere powers of appointment, the allocator is under a mandatory duty to make allocations in accordance with the terms of the trust. The court will intervene to ensure that this duty is discharged.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

5. Health Resource Allocation  

A. M. Farrell and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses the allocation of health resources. No resources are finite, and this certainly applies in the health context. Across the UK’s four nations, health care is free at the point of need; this raises complex political and ethical questions about adequate funding, an appropriate calibration of supply and demand, and balance between maximising health and promoting health equity. This chapter explores allocation at the global, national, and individual levels, looking in depth at metrics such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and organisations such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), a public body that produces evidence-based guidance and advice for care practitioners, develops quality standards and performance metrics for those providing and commissioning care services, and provides a range of information services for commissioners, practitioners, and managers across health and social care. This chapter emphasises that while NICE and similar bodies aim to make decisions grounded in clinical need and efficiency, inevitably they must also include a consideration of what is best for the health service itself, and this means that scientific value and social value judgements cannot be dissociated in such a taxation-funded service.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

27. Small Claims Track  

The Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) provide for the allocation of claims with a limited financial value to what is known as the small claims track. This is intended to provide a streamlined procedure with limited pre-trial preparation, with very restricted rules on the recovery of costs from the losing party, and without the strict rules of evidence. It is appropriate for the most straightforward types of cases, such as consumer disputes, accident claims where the injuries suffered are not very serious, disputes about the ownership of goods, and landlord and tenant cases other than claims for possession. This chapter discusses provisions of the CPR that do not apply; standard and special directions of the court; determination without a hearing; final hearings in small claims track cases; cost restrictions for claims allocated to the small claims track; and rehearings.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

15. Issuing Proceedings, Track Allocation, and Directions  

This chapter begins with a discussion of court selection. The issue of proceedings, and to some extent the choice of court, is increasingly being streamlined, with the procedure for County Court money claims and bulk claims being moved online. For the larger multi-track cases, however, the High Court and the County Court have concurrent jurisdiction for many types of proceedings. The chapter then explains the issuance of the claim form, which marks the start of formal litigation; the service of proceedings, i.e. the formal process by which the defendant is notified of the claim; the claimant's selection of the court in which the claim is brought; and the court's allocation of the case to a particular ‘track’. The final section deals with the directions questionnaire (form N180), which should not be seen as a formality but as a key step in defining how the case should move forward.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

7. The Approach of the Courts to ADR  

This chapter focuses on the approach of the courts to alternative dispute resolution (ADR). Parties are required to consider ADR before proceedings are issued by the protocols and Practice Direction—Pre-action Conduct. If ADR is not undertaken before issue, then it should be considered at the track allocation stage (when all the statements of case have been filed), and again after exchange of documents, and also when witness statements and expert evidence have been exchanged. The court will actively consider whether attempts have been made to settle the dispute by ADR at any case management conference, and may direct the parties to attempt ADR. If the parties reject ADR, before issue or at any stage of the litigation, they should have reasonable and cogent reasons for doing so and may be required to explain these reasons to the court. Moreover, the courts will seek to uphold and enforce ADR clauses in contracts.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

10. Frustration  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter examines the frustration of a contract. Fundamental changes in the facts assumed by the parties, ‘frustrating events’ such as natural disasters and less catastrophic events may fundamentally change the parties’ obligations and frustrate the contract. Frustration of a contract brings the parties’ obligations to an end; a less substantial, non-frustrating event will have no effect and the parties must continue to perform their obligations even if they have become more onerous. The discussions cover the allocation of risk, examples of frustration, limits on frustration, effects of frustration and the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

J. Lauritzen v Wijsmuller (The ‘Super Servant Two’) [1990] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 1  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in J. Lauritzen v Wijsmuller (The ‘Super Servant Two’) [1990] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 1. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

J. Lauritzen v Wijsmuller (The ‘Super Servant Two’) [1990] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 1  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in J. Lauritzen v Wijsmuller (The ‘Super Servant Two’) [1990] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 1. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

10. Frustration  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter examines the frustration of a contract. Fundamental changes in the facts assumed by the parties, ‘frustrating events’ such as natural disasters and less catastrophic events may fundamentally change the parties’ obligations and frustrate the contract. Frustration of a contract brings the parties’ obligations to an end; a less substantial, non-frustrating event will have no effect and the parties must continue to perform their obligations even if they have become more onerous. The discussions cover the allocation of risk, examples of frustration, limits on frustration, effects of frustration and the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

12. Discharge by frustration: subsequent impossibility  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. Without the fault of either party, a contract may be automatically discharged due to frustration that renders further performance of the contract impossible, illegal, or radically different from what was originally conceived. In this case, the parties will be excused further performance of their contractual obligations. However, the frustration doctrine applies only where there is no express provision in the contract (a force majeure clause) allocating the risk. This chapter, which examines the frustration doctrine and discharge for subsequent impossibility, first considers the contractual risk allocation before turning to the theoretical basis for the doctrine of frustration. It then discusses limitations on the operation of the frustration doctrine before examining the effects of frustration and the effects on the parties’ positions of the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

12. Discharge by frustration: subsequent impossibility  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. In general terms non-performance constitutes a breach of contract. The contract may have expressly allocated the risk of certain external events which occur after the contract is made to one of the parties by means of a force majeure clause. The terms of this clause will determine the parties’ positions if the event in question occurs. In the absence of an express allocation of the risk, the frustration doctrine is a residual doctrine that governs when such frustrating events intervene, without the fault of either party. These frustrating events relate to impossibility, illegality or frustration of the common purpose of both parties. This chapter examines the legal basis of the frustration doctrine, when it applies, when it does not apply and the legal consequences of frustration on the parties’ positions. Frustration automatically terminates the contract for the future and, where it applies, the provisions of the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943 govern the parties’ pre-existing legal position.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

12. Discharge by frustration: subsequent impossibility  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas of the law curriculum. In general terms, non-performance constitutes a breach of contract. The contract may have expressly allocated the risk of certain external events which occur after the contract is made to one of the parties by means of a force majeure clause. The terms of this clause will determine the parties’ positions if the event in question occurs. In the absence of an express allocation of the risk, the frustration doctrine is a residual doctrine that governs when such frustrating events intervene, without the fault of either party. These frustrating events relate to impossibility, illegality or frustration of the common purpose of both parties. This chapter examines the legal basis of the frustration doctrine, when it applies, when it does not apply, and the legal consequences of frustration on the parties’ positions. Frustration automatically terminates the contract for the future and, where it applies, the provisions of the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943 govern the parties’ pre-existing legal position.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System

12. The criminal process: Pre-trial and trial  

This chapter explains what happens once a person has been charged with a criminal offence. Whether a case remains in the magistrates’ court or is sent to the Crown Court depends on whether the offence is ‘summary only’, ‘indictable only’, or ‘triable either way’. Summary trial takes place before a district judge or bench of lay justices in the magistrates’ court. Trial on indictment takes place before a jury in the Crown Court. Criminal proceedings are governed by the Criminal Procedure Rules (CrimPR). The overriding objective is to deal with cases justly, including acquitting the innocent and convicting the guilty. The chapter considers those parts of the CrimPR that set out the steps to be taken before a trial in both the magistrates’ court and the Crown Court. It explores key evidential and procedural rules that apply at trial, such as the rule that the prosecution must prove a defendant’s guilt beyond reasonable doubt.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

12. Health Resources and Dilemmas in Treatment  

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses ethical and legal aspects of the global distribution of medical resources; the allocation of national resources; and medical treatment of the individual. It argues that so long as decisions are made taking into account fundamental moral values and principles of equity, impartiality, and fairness, and provided the bases for decision making are flexible in relation to the times, then the underlying system is just and is likely to yield just results.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

12. Discharge by frustration: subsequent impossibility  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. Without the fault of either party, a contract may be automatically discharged due to frustration that renders further performance of the contract impossible, illegal, or radically different from what was originally conceived. In this case, the parties will be excused further performance of their contractual obligations. However, the frustration doctrine applies only where there is no express provision in the contract (a force majeure clause) allocating the risk. This chapter, which examines the frustration doctrine and discharge for subsequent impossibility, first considers the contractual risk allocation before turning to the theoretical basis for the doctrine of frustration. It then discusses limitations on the operation of the frustration doctrine before examining the effects of frustration and the effects on the parties’ positions of the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

8. Mistake  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter considers the area of ‘mistake’. The law distinguishes between several types of mistake. Some mistakes (‘agreement mistakes’) prevent formation of an agreement. These mistakes are mutual mistakes (where the parties are at cross purposes) and unilateral mistakes (where one party is mistaken and the other knows or ought to know this, e.g. unilateral mistake as to identity). The chapter also looks at document mistakes and specifically rectification of a written document to reflect accurately what the parties in fact agreed, and the plea of non est factum (‘this is not my deed’). Finally, a contract having no contractual allocation of risk and made under the same mistaken assumption may be void for ‘common mistake’ if the mistake is so fundamental that it ‘nullifies’ consent. This is known as ‘initial impossibility’ because the impossibility already exists when the parties agree to the contract. This chapter deals with common mistake and initial impossibility, contractual risk allocation, and the theoretical basis for the doctrine of common mistake. It discusses categories of fundamental common mistake, including res extincta, and assesses the legal effects of mistakes as to quality made by both parties. The chapter concludes by considering the relationship between common mistake and frustration.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

8. Mistake  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter focuses on the legal treatment of ‘mistake’. It considers mistakes that prevent agreement (mutual or cross-purposes mistakes and unilateral mistake as to terms, particularly identity mistakes). It also examines the remedy of rectification when the contract does not accurately reflect what the parties agreed. It also considers the defence of non est factum. It then considers mistakes that are presumed to nullify consent if both parties entered into the contract under the same fundamental mistake. The doctrine of common mistake in English law is designed to protect the interests of third parties and to ensure certainty in transactions. A fundamental common mistake arises in cases where there is true impossibility or failure of consideration; the contract is automatically void and any money or property involved has to be returned. Distinctions can arise depending upon whether the impossibility is initial (common mistake) or subsequent (frustration doctrine). Categories of common mistake at common law include mistake as to subject matter (res extincta) and mistake as to ownership (res sua). A mistake as to quality will rarely be sufficiently fundamental to render the contract void. This chapter also discusses Lord Denning’s attempts to introduce an equitable jurisdiction to set aside on terms in cases of mistakes as to quality. These were rejected in Great Peace Shipping Ltd v Tsavliris (International) Ltd meaning that there is no remedial flexibility in such instances.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

8. Mistake  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas of the law curriculum. This chapter focuses on the legal treatment of ‘mistake’. It considers mistakes that prevent agreement (mutual or cross-purposes mistakes and unilateral mistake as to terms, particularly identity mistakes). It also examines the remedy of rectification when the contract does not accurately reflect what the parties agreed. It also considers the defence of non est factum. It then considers mistakes that are presumed to nullify consent if both parties entered into the contract under the same fundamental mistake. The doctrine of common mistake in English law is designed to protect the interests of third parties and to ensure certainty in transactions. A fundamental common mistake arises in cases where there is true impossibility or failure of consideration; the contract is automatically void and any money or property involved has to be returned. Distinctions can arise depending upon whether the impossibility is initial (common mistake) or subsequent (frustration doctrine). Categories of common mistake at common law include mistake as to subject matter (res extincta) and mistake as to ownership (res sua). A mistake as to quality will rarely be sufficiently fundamental to render the contract void. This chapter also discusses Lord Denning’s attempts to introduce an equitable jurisdiction to set aside on terms in cases of mistakes as to quality. These were rejected in Great Peace Shipping Ltd v Tsavliris (International) Ltd meaning that there is no remedial flexibility in such instances.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

8. Mistake  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter considers the area of ‘mistake’. The law distinguishes between several types of mistake. Some mistakes (‘agreement mistakes’) prevent formation of an agreement. These mistakes are common mistakes (where the parties are at cross-purposes) and unilateral mistakes (where one party is mistaken and the other knows or ought to know this, e.g. unilateral mistake as to identity). The chapter also looks at document mistakes and specifically rectification of a written document to reflect accurately what the parties in fact agreed, and the plea of non est factum (‘this is not my deed’). Finally, a contract having no contractual allocation of risk and made under the same mistaken assumption may be void for ‘common mistake’ if the mistake is so fundamental that it ‘nullifies’ consent. This is known as ‘initial impossibility’ because the impossibility already exists when the parties agree to the contract. This chapter deals with common mistake and initial impossibility, contractual risk allocation, and the theoretical basis for the doctrine of common mistake. It discusses categories of fundamental common mistake, including res extincta, and assesses the legal effects of mistakes as to quality made by both parties. The chapter concludes by considering the relationship between common mistake and frustration.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

16. Vertical agreements  

This chapter examines the application of Article 101 TFEU and the Chapter I prohibition in the UK Competition Act 1998 to distribution agreements. The chapter begins with a discussion of distribution chains in the modern economy, looking at the various ways in which producers market their goods or services to consumers; these have been enormously enhanced by the emergence of the digital economy. This is followed by sections on how the law applies to producers carrying on their own distribution function (‘vertical integration’), commercial agency and vertical sub-contracting relationships. It discusses the competition policy considerations raised by distribution agreements, and explains the application of Article 101 to various different types of distribution agreements. This is followed by a section on the provisions of Regulation 330/2010, the block exemption for distribution agreements, and the individual application of Article 101(3) to distribution agreements. The chapter then contains sections on Regulation 461/2010 on motor vehicle distribution. Finally, it deals with the application of the Chapter I prohibition in the UK Competition Act 1998 to distribution agreements.