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Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

3. Certainty and the intention to create legal relations  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter discusses certainty and the intention to create legal relations. It first considers cases where the parties have used ambiguous or unclear language. It then looks at cases where the parties have deliberately left terms to be agreed at a later date. In the former cases, the agreement is often described as ‘vague’; in the latter cases it is described as ‘incomplete’. The chapter then turns to domestic agreements, commercial agreements, and executory and executed agreements.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

3. Certainty and the intention to create legal relations  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter discusses certainty and the intention to create legal relations. It first considers cases where the parties have used ambiguous or unclear language. It then looks at cases where the parties have deliberately left terms to be agreed at a later date. In the former cases, the agreement is often described as ‘vague’; in the latter cases it is described as ‘incomplete’. The chapter then turns to domestic agreements, commercial agreements, and executory and executed agreements.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

6. Intention to create legal relations  

This chapter considers the final element of the formation of the contract: the intention to create legal relations. There is generally no difficulty in finding this requirement is fulfilled in commercial cases, but such intention is generally assumed to be absent in domestic or social agreements. The parties’ intentions may usually reflect these assumptions, but the issue of underlying policy is addressed. In commercial situations, issues of ‘intention to create legal relations’ are more likely to arise in relation to a clause which it is claimed is intended to show that there was no such intention in relation to the particular agreement.

Chapter

Cover Cheshire, Fifoot, and Furmston's Law of Contract

5. Intention to Create Legal Relations  

M P Furmston

This chapter, which examines the requirements of intention to create legal relations, discusses its application to domestic agreements such as agreements between husband and wife and commercial agreements.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

15. Horizontal agreements (3): cooperation agreements  

This chapter discusses horizontal cooperation agreements between competitors. There may be circumstances in which competitors cooperate with one another in a way that delivers economic benefits, not just for themselves but for consumer welfare as well. After a discussion of joint ventures, the chapter discusses the application of Article 101 to horizontal cooperation agreements. It refers, in particular, to the European Commission’s Guidelines on Horizontal Cooperation Agreements and discusses, in turn, information exchange, research and development agreements, production agreements, purchasing agreements, commercialisation agreements, standardisation agreements and other cases of permissible horizontal cooperation. It concludes with a brief look at the treatment of horizontal cooperation agreements under UK competition law.

Chapter

Cover Complete Contract Law

4. Certainty and the Intention to Enter a Legal Relationship  

This chapter investigates the basic law on the certainty and intention requirements in the creation of an agreement. To be legally enforceable as a contract, the agreement must be sufficiently certain and show an intention to enter a legal relationship. Agreements can be uncertain because they are vague, or because they are incomplete. This can indicate there was no intention to enter a legal relationship. The courts must not rewrite the agreement; they must simply interpret it. If an agreement is incomplete, the courts may decide that the missing terms are implied, and this is more likely if there has been performance. A gap in an incomplete agreement can be filled if the parties have provided a mechanism for doing so, or if the terms can be construed so as to do so. The chapter then differentiates between an agreement to negotiate (a lock-in agreement) and agreements not to negotiate with other parties (lock-out agreements). Agreements between businesses are presumed to be made with the intention to be legally binding, but the facts, the interpretation of the terms, or the surrounding circumstances could mean there was no such intention.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

10. Horizontal Cooperation Agreements  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter discusses EU competition policy towards horizontal cooperation agreements. It covers joint ventures; the contents of the 2022 Draft Guidelines; the general approach to horizontal cooperation agreements in the Guidelines; research and development agreements, including the 2022 draft block exemption on research and development; production agreements, including the 2022 draft block exemption on specialisation agreements; purchasing agreements; commercialisation agreements; standardisation agreements; and sustainability agreements.

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

2. Contract I: essential features of a contract  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the essential features of a contract. Offer and acceptance are the first stages in establishing an agreement that may form a legally binding contract. An offer may be accepted at any point until it is terminated. Acceptance can only be made by the offeree or their agent. Consideration is the bargain element of a contract and may be referred to as the ‘price of a promise’. The parties must intend for an agreement to establish legal relations to create an enforceable contract. Presumptions exist in relation to social/domestic agreements and business/commercial agreements.

Chapter

Cover O'Sullivan & Hilliard's The Law of Contract

4. Certainty  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines the certainty requirement in contractual formation and discusses the factors that influence the courts in deciding whether an agreement possesses the requisite degree of certainty, in the context of issues such as agreements to agree, agreements to negotiate in good faith, and agreements to use reasonable or best endeavours to negotiate or agree.

Chapter

Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract

5. Contract as an agreement  

This chapter discusses the key elements of a contract as an agreement. No contract exists unless the parties have agreed on everything which they consider requires agreement. However, a failure explicitly to set out all the terms of the agreement is not necessarily fatal to there being a contract, since a court might be able to imply terms to fill in any gaps. But a court will be unable to do this if it would contradict the intentions of the parties. Parties may agree not to negotiate with anyone else for a specified period of time. But an agreement to negotiate with one another is not binding because it is insufficiently certain. An agreement may be made ‘subject’ to something or other. If so, the contract is not binding until that particular event occurs.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

17. EU relations with third states and international organisations  

This chapter considers the EU’s relationship with third countries and international organisations. It discusses the legal basis and competence for the EU’s external action and offers examples of how the EU exercises this competence. This is followed by an overview of the types of agreements the EU enters into with third countries with a discussion on the treaty arrangements with Switzerland, the EEA (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) and the UK. It then considers the EU’s relationship with a selection of international organisations.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

10. Horizontal Cooperation Agreements  

This chapter discusses EU competition policy towards horizontal cooperation agreements. It covers joint ventures; the contents of the 2010 Guidelines; the general approach to horizontal cooperation agreements in the Guidelines; information agreements; research and development agreements, including the block emption, Regulation 1217/2010; production agreements, including the block exemption on specialisation agreements, Regulation 1218/2010 ; purchasing agreements; commercialisation agreements; standardisation agreements; and agreements in particular sectors, such as the joint buying or selling of media rights to sports events.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

15. Horizontal agreements (3): cooperation agreements  

This chapter is concerned with horizontal cooperation agreements which the competition authorities in the EU and the UK may be prepared to countenance. There may be circumstances in which competitors cooperate with one another in a way that delivers economic benefits, not just for themselves, but for consumer welfare as well. After a discussion of joint ventures, the chapter discusses the application of Article 101 to horizontal cooperation agreements. It refers, in particular, to the European Commission’s Guidelines on Horizontal Cooperation Agreements and discusses, in turn, information exchange, research and development agreements, production agreements, purchasing agreements, commercialisation agreements, standardisation agreements, sustainability agreements and other cases of permissible horizontal cooperation. It concludes with a brief look at the treatment of horizontal cooperation agreements under UK competition law.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

7. Intention to Create Legal Relations  

An essential ingredient of a binding contract is that the parties must have had an intention to create legal relations. In other words, they must have had an intention to be bound by the terms of their agreement. This chapter, which examines the doctrine of intention to create legal relations, begins by considering cases involving domestic and social agreements before turning to analyse the role of intention to create legal relations in the commercial environment. The chapter also covers the role of presumptions in relation to proof of the existence of an intention to create legal relations and the relationship between the doctrine of intention to create legal relations and consideration.

Chapter

Cover EU Law in the UK

16. Negotiating a ‘future relationship’: EU external relations law  

This chapter examines the ‘future relationship’ agreement(s) that will apply between the UK and the EU. Following the adoption of the Withdrawal Agreement, the UK will be looking to conclude what the EU terms a ‘future relationship’ agreement with the EU over the course of the transition period. That ‘future relationship’ will address both the conditions under which the UK trades with the EU in the future — or what replaces the internal market — and how the UK and the EU relate to each other diplomatically — or what replaces ‘membership’ of the EU as an institution. The EU Treaties set out clear processes for the conclusion of international agreements between the EU and other countries. The chapter explores what those processes are, considering what powers the EU has to conclude international agreements. It also looks at how decision-making relating to those international agreements takes place within the EU institutions.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

11. Consumer credit  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses some of the key common law and statutory provisions relating to consumer credit agreements and the common issues that arise. It first explains the provisions of the Consumer Credit Act 1974, as amended by the Consumer Credit Act 2006. The chapter then considers the rights of debtors who take credit under a ‘regulated agreement’, along with the (previous) extortionate credit bargain provisions that have been replaced by a test which considers whether there was an unfair relationship between the debtor and the creditor. It also considers consumer hire agreements, exempt agreements, small agreements, and non-commercial agreements, as well as the liability of the creditor for the seller’s misrepresentation or breach of contract, retaking of protected goods, and the debtor’s right to complete payments ahead of time.

Book

Cover Competition Law

Richard Whish and David Bailey

The book explains the purpose of competition policy, introduces the reader to key concepts and techniques in competition law and provides insights into the numerous different issues that arise when analysing market behaviour. Describing the law in its economics and market context, the chapters particularly consider the competition law implications of business phenomena, including distribution agreements, licences of intellectual property rights, cartels, joint ventures and mergers. The book assimilates a wide variety of resources, including judgments, decisions, guidelines and periodical literature. The text has been updated to include the changes to UK law introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015, including the reform of collective actions. It also considers the Directive on Antitrust Damages Actions and other measures designed to facilitate private enforcement of competition law. The book also discusses for the first time the application of competition law to price signalling, algorithmic collusion and other atypical cartel activities; it also incorporates extensive new case law and decisional practice at EU and UK level.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

4. Property Division on Divorce  

Polly Morgan

At the end of a marriage or civil partnership, it is necessary to consider the practical and financial arrangements for the parties’ future: how they will share the value of the house(s), the pensions, and the savings and investments; who pays the debts; who gets personal belongings and furniture; and who has what income to live on. The law will only give effect to agreements that are objectively fair. If the parties cannot agree on a fair settlement, then courts have the power to impose a settlement on them by making a ‘financial remedy’ order in whatever terms it thinks are objectively fair. This power does not apply to unmarried couples. This chapter looks at what the court can do, the legal principles and practicalities that govern property redistribution, and some contentious issues and problems that may arise in financial remedy practice.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Felthouse v Bindley [1862] EWHC CP J35; 142 ER 1037  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Felthouse v Bindley [1862] EWHC CP J35; 142 ER 1037. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Felthouse v Bindley [1862] EWHC CP J35; 142 ER 1037  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Felthouse v Bindley [1862] EWHC CP J35; 142 ER 1037. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.