1-20 of 79 Results

  • Keyword: agency x
Clear all

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law of agency, which is a complex, subtle, and often misunderstood subject. Understanding it is, however, important, especially given the extent to which it can affect commercial and other areas of the law. It has also been established that, for many businesses, the use of agents is invaluable, and significant areas of commercial activity could not continue without the existence of agency. Several basic foundation issues relating to the law of agency, such as the sources of agency law and the various types of agent that exist, are discussed here. The chapter begins by determining the legal meaning of ‘agency’. Unfortunately, whilst many definitions of agency exist, the concept is ‘notoriously slippery and difficult to define’, according to Bowstead and Reynolds. The chapter also looks at the various forms of agent, including the development of the commercial agent.

Chapter

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter examines how contracts made by the agent affect the legal relations of the principal with regard to third parties. When considering the rights and liability arising under a contract made by an agent, it is important to draw the distinction between whether the agent was acting for a disclosed or undisclosed principal, the latter being an important feature of English agency law largely unknown to civil lawyers. This chapter discusses generally the relations between principal and third party, and between agent and third party, in the context of both disclosed and undisclosed agency.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law of agency, which is a complex, subtle, and often misunderstood subject. Understanding it is, however, important, especially given the extent to which it can affect commercial and other areas of the law. It has also been established that, for many businesses, the use of agents is invaluable, and significant areas of commercial activity could not continue without the existence of agency. Several basic foundation issues relating to the law of agency, such as the sources of agency law and the various types of agent that exist, are discussed here. The chapter begins by determining the legal meaning of ‘agency’. Unfortunately, whilst many definitions of agency exist, the concept is ‘notoriously slippery and difficult to define’, according to Bowstead and Reynolds. The chapter also looks at the various forms of agent, including the development of the commercial agent.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the various methods by which the authority of an agent can be terminated according to the law of agency. Numerous such methods exist, but they can be loosely organized into two distinct categories: first, termination by an act of the parties; second, termination by operation of the law. An agent’s authority may be terminated by the act of one or both of the parties. It should be noted that, whilst the acts discussed in the chapter will usually terminate the agent’s actual authority, the facts of the case might lead the court to conclude that the agent still has apparent authority to act on behalf of the principal.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the various methods by which the authority of an agent can be terminated according to the law of agency. Numerous such methods exist, but they can be loosely organized into two distinct categories: first, termination by an act of the parties; second, termination by operation of the law. An agent’s authority may be terminated by the act of one or both of the parties. It should be noted that, whilst the acts discussed in the chapter will usually terminate the agent’s actual authority, the facts of the case might lead the court to conclude that the agent still has apparent authority to act on behalf of the principal.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law on contracting through agents. It covers the place of agency in English law; the formation of agency; the position of principal and agent with regard to third parties; unauthorized acts of the agent; and termination of agency.

Chapter

Stuart Bell, Donald McGillivray, Ole W. Pedersen, Emma Lees, and Elen Stokes

This chapter focuses on national law, while also introducing international and European sources. Environmental law emerges at international, European, and national levels partly because the complex, interconnected nature of environmental problems requires a range of solutions at all of these levels. Some of the key characteristics of environmental laws that help to explain both the form and function of UK environmental law are examined here. The chapter also considers the institutions that are involved in the administration of environmental law and policy. The administration of environmental law and policy is carried out by a diversity of bodies, including government departments, regulatory agencies such as the Environment Agency, and a range of quasi-governmental bodies. The focus here is almost exclusively on UK structures and institutions. An underlying theme of the chapter is the way in which administrative structures are used to encourage the integration of environmental law and policy both internally—for example, through the creation of the Environment Agency as a unified regulatory agency—and externally; for example, through various methods of scrutinizing environmental policy across government departments.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the creation of agency and its three main parties: the agent, the principal, and the third party. The primary purpose of the agent is to bring the principal and the third party into direct contractual relations, with the principal taking on the rights and liabilities created by the contracts provided the agent had authority to act. The chapter looks at several kinds of agent’s authority, including actual authority, apparent authority, and usual authority, and also considers agency of necessity as well as cases where the principal may ratify a transaction.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the creation of agency and its three main parties: the agent, the principal, and the third party. The primary purpose of the agent is to bring the principal and the third party into direct contractual relations, with the principal taking on the rights and liabilities created by the contracts, provided the agent had authority to act. The chapter looks at several kinds of agent’s authority, including actual authority, apparent authority, and usual authority, and also considers agency of necessity as well as cases where the principal may ratify a transaction.

Chapter

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter focuses on the rights and obligations of the principal and the agent between themselves, whether arising from a contract between them or from the fiduciary nature of their relationship. However, those rights and obligations may also derive from other sources, for example tort, statute, or the law of restitution. There is detailed consideration of the duties of the agent, such as the duty of care and skill and fiduciary duties, as well as the rights relating to remuneration, reimbursement and indemnity, and lien. The chapter also discusses the ways by which agency may be terminated.

Chapter

This chapter examines whether the combination of laws, policies, and procedures of different prosecuting and enforcement agencies is fair, effective, and freedom-enhancing. It discusses the respective roles of the police and Crown Prosecution Service in prosecution decision-making; how cases are constructed for prosecution; the criteria for prosecution decision-making; diversion from prosecution; review of prosecution decisions and accountability; and different treatment of ‘regulatory’ offences and ‘real’ crime.

Chapter

This chapter examines the key provisions of the law of agency. It highlights the importance of agency for the business sector and explains that an agency is a specific form of legal relationship between two persons whereby one person appoints another person to act on his behalf. An agency can be created by express or implied agreement, through the agent’s apparent authority, and when the principal ratifies the purported agent’s act. This chapter also discusses the duties and rights of the principal and agent, and the relationships that exist between agent, principal, and third party. Finally, the chapter discusses the various ways in which a relationship of agency can be terminated.

Chapter

This chapter places trusts in their contemporary social, economic, legal, and international context. It first discusses their significance to the world outside the lawyer’s office, and shows that they play an important social and economic role in the lives of ordinary people. The trust operates in key areas such as home, employment, and commerce. The chapter also examines the trust in the context of laws, focusing on how it corresponds to, and coexists with, other legal ideas such as contract, debt, powers, gift, agency, bailment, tax, and corporation, and concludes by looking at the international and comparative dimension of the trust.

Chapter

This chapter begins by defining agency—the relationship which exists between the agent and the principal—and considers the legal relationships created between an agent, his principal, and a third party. It then discusses the different methods by which an agency relationship may be created. The chapter explains the extent of an agent’s authority, the power of an agent to bind his principal, and the rights and duties of an agent. The relationship between agent, principal, and third party is explored and the different rules relating to disclosed and undisclosed agencies. Finally, the termination of an agency relationship is considered and examples of different types of agencies highlighted.

Chapter

This chapter deals with the legal relationship of agency that exists between the company and the agent, explaining the process involved in an agent’s authentication and the execution of documents for the company he or she represents. It considers two ways in which a company may become contractually bound to another person (a ‘contractor’) under the provisions of the Companies Act 2006: through a written contract to which the company’s common seal is affixed, or when someone has made a contract on behalf of the company. It also discusses the company’s capacity to enter into contracts, including the ultra vires rule, and attribution by a court so as to impose criminal liability on a company. A number of court cases relevant to the discussion are cited.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the concept of employment status. Topics covered include the reasons for distinguishing employees from other types of worker; statutory definitions of employee and worker; and the courts’ and tribunals’ approach to identifying employees. The tests for employment status are stated concentrating on mutuality of obligations and personal service. Discussion centres on zero hours contracts, agency workers, and the gig economy.

Chapter

Lara Walker

Child support in England and Wales is predominantly dealt with by the Child Support Act 1991. Many people believe that that parents should provide support for their children, that separated parents should continue to provide support, and that single parents are entitled to support for the child from the non-resident parent (usually, but not always, the father). However, the difficult factor is finding a theoretical underpinning for this duty which is believed, by many, to exist. This chapter begins by looking at some of the theories on child support and problems associated with these theories. It then looks at the government policy on child support in order to establish whether the policy is built on any of these theories and, if so, how closely it actually relates to the theory.

Chapter

This chapter deals with the legal relationship of agency that exists between the company and the agent, explaining the process involved in an agent’s authentication and the execution of documents for the company they represent. It considers two ways in which a company may become contractually bound to another person (a ‘contractor’) under the provisions of the Companies Act 2006: through a written contract to which the company’s common seal is affixed, or when someone has made a contract on behalf of the company. It also discusses the company’s capacity to enter into contracts, including the ultra vires rule, and attribution by a court so as to impose criminal liability on a company. A number of court cases relevant to the discussion are cited.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law covering atypical workers. These include part-time workers, fixed-term workers, agency workers and ex-offenders. The EU social policy was tasked with coming up with a number of directives to prevent discrimination against such workers, and to give them what is effectively a ‘floor of rights’. Under the law, part-time workers should not be treated less favourably than full-timers, unless this can be objectively justified. Fixed-term workers should not be treated less favourably than full-timers, unless this can be objectively justified. A fixed-term employee who has been with the same employer for four years is entitled to a permanent contract. An agency worker is entitled to comparable terms and conditions as a permanent employee after twelve weeks. Ex-offenders are entitled not to refer to their convictions in certain circumstances, depending on what they were sentenced to.

Chapter

The Child Support Act 1991 introduced a mechanism to recover maintenance from absent parents for their children. It created the Child Support Agency (CSA) as the organization responsible for collecting child support maintenance. This chapter discusses the framework of child support; when a client may be required to pay child support; what a client can do if they do not receive child support; and the future of child support. It examines the CSA scheme, which commenced in 2003, and the Child Maintenance Service, which opened its doors on 29 July 2013. It also looks at the financial provisions under Schedule 1 of the Children Act 1989.