1-14 of 14 Results

  • Keyword: age x
Clear all

Chapter

This chapter deals with age discrimination law under the Equality Act. It discusses the history and background of age discrimination law, protected characteristics, prohibited conduct on grounds of age discrimination, and key debates about how the law operates and how it might be improved in the future. There is no longer a default retirement age in the UK. If an employer wishes to retire an employee at a particular age, he has to have objective reasons for choosing that age. Unlike other protected characteristics, direct age discrimination can be justified, and there are a number of exceptions, such as length of service benefits, which have been kept from the Age Regulations of 2006.

Chapter

This chapter describes different ways in which evidence may be given of certain matters that frequently have to be proved in litigation. Proof of foreign law, identity, birth, death, age, marriage and legitimacy, judgments, convictions, and other orders of the court are discussed here. With foreign law, the general rule is that it must be proved by an expert witness. For questions of identification, the question of evidence becomes more complicated, with the chapter exploring direct, circumstantial, and presumptive evidence in relation to identity. After a brief look into birth, death, age, marriage, and legitimacy, the chapter finally turns to the proof of judgments and convictions.

Chapter

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses some of the ethical and legal issues associated with the very difficult practice of treating the elderly, grounding the discussion in the tension between autonomy and paternalism. It is emphasised that this complex and fragmented field is still undergoing significant regulatory changes as a result of the Care Act 2014, the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014, and the Public Bodies (Joint Working) (Scotland) Act 2014. It also covers the elder incapax and dying from old age.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter discusses the following general defences: infancy, insanity, automatism, intoxication (involuntary and voluntary), and mistake. Children under the age of ten are conclusively presumed incapable of committing a criminal offence. Insanity (insane automatism) is concerned with the defendant’s mental condition at the time of the offence. Automatism is available where the defendant suffers a total loss of control or is unaware of what he is doing. Involuntary intoxication may be a defence to any offence if the defendant does not have the mens rea for that offence. Voluntary intoxication is no defence to a basic intent offence. A mistake as to civil law may negate the mens rea of an offence.

Chapter

This chapter discusses amendments to the Mental Capacity Act (MCA 2005), introduced in the Mental Health Act 2007, which are generally known as the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DOLS). It begins with an overview of the DOLS and then considers the triggering issue for the applicability of the DOLS, namely whether there is a deprivation of liberty. The chapter outlines the six requirements for application of the DOLS: (i) age requirement; (ii) mental health requirement; (iii) mental capacity requirement; (iv) best interests requirement; (v) no refusals requirement; and (vi) eligibility.

Chapter

This chapter presents a brief history of international law. It proceeds chronologically, beginning with an overview of the ancient world, followed by a more detailed discussion of the great era of natural law in the European Middle Ages. The classical period (1600–1815) witnessed the emergence of a dualistic view of international law, with the law of nature and the law of nations co-existing (more or less amicably). In the nineteenth century—the least-known part of international law—doctrinaire positivism was the prevailing viewpoint, though not the exclusive one. For the inter-war years, developments both inside and outside the League of Nations are considered. The chapter concludes with some historically oriented comments on international law during the post-1945 period.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the capacity and intention required to make a valid will. To have capacity means that a person is legally competent to make a will. To be competent, the testator must have attained the required minimum age and must possess the necessary level of mental competence. A will is also invalid unless the testator had the intention to make it—he must have the animus testandi when he executes the will. More specifically, the requirement is that the testator must have intended that his wishes—as expressed in the appropriate form—should take effect on his death. It follows that these wishes must be entirely the result of his volition: the testator must know and approve of the contents of his will. Hence animus testandi can be vitiated by factors such as fraud, mistake, undue influence, or failure to understand fully the dispositions in the will.

Chapter

This chapter reviews the contexts in which developmental and life course criminology (DLC) emerged and has endured. It offers a critical review of theoretical and methodological innovation and advancement within the paradigm, and explores the policy solutions offered by DLC scholars. Overall, it is argued that DLC has flourished despite hostile criticism from those with other epistemological and ontological leanings because of its social, economic, and political acumen. Some concerns remain, however, about the potential for conceptual stasis within the paradigm due to a self-referential tendency that has become evident in the ways in which DLC scholarship is published and funded. The chapter concludes that DLC has radical potential provided it exhibits sufficient reflexivity in the ways in which it deploys theory and method. Important lessons can be learned from DLC and this chapter urges wider disciplinary engagement.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the defences of age, insanity, automatism, intoxication, and mistake. If D is under the age of ten, he is deemed incapable of criminal liability. Insanity is where D proves he had a disease of mind which caused a defect of reason so that D did not know the nature and quality of his act or that it was wrong. Non-insane automatism is an assertion by D that the prosecution cannot prove the actus reus of the offence because D was not in control of his muscular movements. Intoxication rarely succeeds as a defence. Involuntary intoxication is a defence if D does not form mens rea. Voluntary intoxication is a defence only if D is charged with a specific intent crime and D did not form mens rea. Mistake is a defence provided the mistake prevents D forming mens rea.

Chapter

This chapter, which examines pornography and obscenity on the internet, first provides an overview of the UK common law standard known as the Hicklin principle and the Obscene Publications Acts. It then discusses the UK standard and US statutory interventions on pornography, the impact of the case ACLU v Reno on the regulation of sexually explicit content on the internet, pseudo-images, and images depicting child abuse as the most extreme form of pornographic image, and the policing of pseudo-images in the UK and internationally. The chapter also considers the law on non-photographic pornographic images of children, along with private regulation of pornographic imagery and the new Age-verification code for adult websites.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the defences of age, insanity, automatism, intoxication, and mistake. If D is under the age of ten, he is deemed incapable of criminal liability. Insanity is where D proves he had a disease of mind which caused a defect of reason so that D did not know the nature and quality of his act or that it was wrong. Non-insane automatism is an assertion by D that the prosecution cannot prove the actus reus of the offence because D was not in control of his muscular movements. Intoxication rarely succeeds as a defence. Involuntary intoxication is a defence if D does not form mens rea. Voluntary intoxication is a defence only if D is charged with a specific intent crime and D did not form mens rea. Mistake is a defence provided the mistake prevents D forming mens rea.

Chapter

This chapter analyses the ‘protected characteristics’ in the Equality Act 2010. These include sex, gender re-assignment, pregnancy, and maternity discrimination; race discrimination; religion or belief discrimination; sexual orientation, marriage, and civil partnership discrimination; and age discrimination. It examines these protected characteristics in detail, including some of the ‘boundary disputes’ which arise in the case of some of them. It then explores the genuine occupational requirements exception; the mechanics of the reversed burden of proof in discrimination cases; and the law of vicarious liability in the context of discrimination. Finally, the chapter sets out the various remedies available where a claimant is successful in his/her discrimination complaint before an employment tribunal.

Chapter

The Sexual Offences Act 2003 (SOA 2003), which governs almost every offence relating to sexual behaviour, thoroughly overhauled and modernised the law of sexual offences. Prior to the introduction of SOA 2003, the law relating to sexual offences lacked coherence or structure; it offered inadequate protection for the vulnerable and meted many maximum penalties that were deemed too light. This chapter focuses on most of the sexual offences contained in SOA 2003, namely, rape, sexual assault, and other non-consensual sexual offences. It discusses the age of consent, sexual offences involving children younger than sixteen, abuse of a position of trust where a child is below eighteen, familial sex offences, sex with an adult relative, sexual offences against people with a mental disorder, and preparatory offences.

Chapter

This chapter examines sex discrimination law in the European Union (EU). It analyses the reasons for the original inclusion of sex discrimination in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and discusses the provision of TFEU Articles that aim to promote equality and prohibit discrimination. It evaluates the scope of Article 157 TFEU and explains the principle of ‘equal pay for equal work’ and ‘work of equal value’. This chapter also considers the expansion of the EU equality law with Article 19 TFEU, the Pregnant and Breastfeeding Workers Directive, and the Social Security Directive.