1-14 of 14 Results

  • Keyword: adversarial x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

1. The English Legal System  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter provides an introduction to the English Legal System. Specifically, it explains the meaning of the terms ‘English’, ‘legal’, and ‘system’. It first provides an overview of the constituent parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, namely England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. It describes the types of law that exist and attempts to define what law is. It then discusses the English legal system, which is based on common law and is an adversarial system.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

13. Joining the Right Parties  

The accurate identification of parties is vital in an adversarial system. There must be a clear cause of action by the party named as claimant against the party named as defendant or the action will fail. Loss and damage must be also shown to have been caused to the named claimant by the named defendant or damages will not be recoverable. This chapter first discusses the selection of claimants and defendants, and other types of involvement (agency, vicarious liability, the role of insurance, substitution of parties). Where a business is a party to an action, it may be run by a sole trader, by a partnership, by a company, or by a public limited partnership. The correct legal personality must be used for the proper service of documents, for success in the action, and for enforcement of judgment. The remainder of the chapter covers the rules for specific types of parties; additional claims and additional parties under Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) Part 20; and the drafting of the Part 20 claim.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

2. An Overview of the Litigation Process  

This chapter provides an overview of the main stages of the litigation process. It first describes the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 and the accompanying Practice Directions, which provide a basis for civil litigation, as well as the adversarial approach and the right to a fair trial. It then explains the various stages of the litigation process, beginning with the pre-action stage, which involves gathering appropriate information, evaluating the case, taking key decisions about framing the case, and building a working relationship with the other side. This is followed by discussions on starting an action; statements of case (i.e. defining the parties, the issues between the parties, and remedies sought); interim stages and case management; options for interrupting or ending litigation; preparations for trial; trial and judgment; and cases with an international element.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

1. The English Legal System  

This chapter provides an introduction to the English Legal System. Specifically, it explains the meaning of the terms ‘English’, ‘legal’, and ‘system’. It first provides an overview of the constituent parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, namely England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. It describes the types of law that exist and attempts to define what law is. It then discusses the English legal system, which is based on common law and is an adversarial system.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

3. The court system of England & Wales  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter outlines the courts and tribunals system of England & Wales, first explaining key themes and concepts that are essential for understanding the structure and mechanics of English courts and tribunals. It then discusses the criminal courts and civil courts of England and Wales; it then focusses on other courts and forums that have significance in the English legal system, but which are not part of the English court system. The most significant of these are the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice, and alternatives to litigation (alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, Ombudsmen, and negotiation).

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Criminal Law

18. The Adoption of the essential features of the adversarial system  

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

This chapter begins with a comparison of the inquisitorial and adversarial systems of criminal procedure. It then discusses trial proceedings; appellate proceedings; and the adoption of the adversarial model at the international level.

Chapter

Cover Legal Ethics

10. Litigation  

This chapter explores the ethical issues that arise around litigation. It discusses theories of litigation, including disputes over whether litigation is ‘good’. The attitude that anything that helps a client to win in litigation is justified is rarely accepted these days, and there is a need for lawyers to weigh up their duties to the court and to their clients. The chapter covers the adversarial system of litigation in England and Wales, and inquisitorial adjudication. This can create tensions for lawyers between their duties to their clients and their duties the justice system and to the general public. The chapter also covers both criminal and civil litigation proceedings. In addition, the chapter considers advocacy services and the duties that litigators owe to the court.

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

1. Introduction, principles, and key concepts  

This chapter introduces the principles and key concepts underlying the law of evidence, with an emphasis on criminal evidence. It reviews Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), now part of English law as a result of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA). It points to factors which are reducing adversarialism in English criminal trials. The risks, along with the advantages, of the increasing use of computer technology in presenting evidence, are illustrated by reference to the wrongful prosecutions of hundreds of Post Office counter staff for dishonesty offences. The chapter concludes by highlighting the importance of analysis of the relevance of the facts in a trial.

Chapter

Cover Legal Ethics

9. Litigation  

This chapter explores the ethical issues that arise around litigation. It discusses theories of litigation, including disputes over whether litigation is ‘good’. The chapter covers the adversarial system of litigation in England and Wales, and inquisitorial adjudication. It also covers both criminal and civil litigation proceedings. In addition, the chapter considers advocacy services and the duties that litigators owe to the court.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

23. Criminal justice principles  

This chapter describes the key principles of the criminal justice system. These key principles behind the abstract aims of criminal justice include the rule of law, adversarial justice, and restorative justice. The chapter particularly focuses on the rule of law doctrine to illustrate its status as the ultimate authority for democratic systems of justice around the world, but it also reflects on three of its supplementary concepts: an independent judiciary, due process, and human rights. Meanwhile, the traditional adversarial contest in a courtroom between two opposing sides means such hearings can lack impartiality as the role of the judge is limited to ensuring that the rules are followed. The restorative justice principle offers a different dimension, one that prioritises repairing the harms suffered by the injured parties.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

25. Criminal justice policies and practices  

This chapter studies criminal justice policies, practices, and the people who work within the system. It begins by tracing the origins and influences of criminal justice policies. Criminal justice policies predominantly come from the government, but other organisations and individuals such as academics, the media, corporations, and lobbyists can influence them. The motivations behind these policy influencers may vary, but they all share the ultimate aim of ensuring that their preferred strategy is implemented in practice. The chapter then considers the significant impact that ‘penal populism’ can exert on policy, and how government policy is shaping the ways in which the ‘adversarial-lite’ principle is implemented. It assesses use of both of those policies in practice in the courtroom and the community to see how key principles can play out in reality. Finally, the chapter reflects on the effects of all the components upon the people who work in the criminal justice system.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

3. The Course of Evidence  

Chapter 3 examines the principles relating to the presentation of evidence in court. It first discusses the adversarial tradition upon which the English trial process is based. It then distinguishes between the principles governing the questioning of one’s own witness (which occurs in examination-in-chief and re-examination) and those governing the questioning of another party’s witness (which occurs in cross-examination). It shows that, in criminal proceedings, provisions in the Criminal Justice Act 2003 now deal with two particular matters that may arise in the course of questioning one’s own witness—the extent to which refreshing memory is permitted, and the extent to which a previous consistent statement is admissible in evidence. The chapter also considers other issues, including the judicial approach to ‘no case to answer’ submissions in criminal trials, and the extent to which the claimant or prosecution may adduce further evidence after closing its case.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

3. The court system of England & Wales  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter outlines the court system of England & Wales, first explaining key themes and concepts that are essential for understanding the structure and mechanics of the English courts. It then discusses the criminal courts and civil courts of England and Wales; other courts and forums that have significance in the English legal system, such as the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice, but are not part of the English court system; and alternatives to litigation (alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, Ombudsmen, and negotiation).

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

12. Negotiation and mediation  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter provides guidance as to how to conduct a negotiation and a mediation, and explains the difference between the two. It explains how, why, and when a law student might require these skills, and how to further develop the skills for professional practice. Advice is given about how to prepare a negotiation plan.