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Chapter

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

This chapter discusses the law on adoption. It covers the nature of adoption and background to the legislation; comparison of adoption with other legal relationships and orders; adoption and human rights; the changing pattern of adoption; responsibility for placing children for adoption; general principles when reaching decisions about adoption; adoption service under the Adoption and Children Act 2002; placement for adoption; the procedure for the making of adoption orders; contact considerations; registration of adoption and the adoption contact register; the effects of an adoption order; transfer of parentage. It then examines the international aspects of adoption and, in that context, the 1993 Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. The chapter ends with a discussion of special guardianship.

Chapter

N V Lowe and G Douglas

This chapter discusses the law on adoption. It covers the nature of adoption and background to the legislation; comparison of adoption with other legal relationships and orders; adoption and human rights; the changing pattern of adoption; responsibility for placing children for adoption; general principles when reaching decisions about adoption; adoption service under the Adoption and Children Act 2002; placement for adoption; the procedure for the making of adoption orders; contact considerations; registration of adoption and the adoption contact register; the effects of an adoption order; transfer of parentage; offences; and special guardianship.

Chapter

Adoption and special guardianship are two options to provide secure family homes for children who have been made subject to care orders and cannot return to their parents. The legal processes for adoption are complex and designed to meet children’s welfare needs while respecting the rights of adults. However, adoption is controversial, especially when courts override birth parents’ objections. Children often require ongoing support because of their experiences in early life and potential issues of post-placement contact with birth families. Fixed boundaries between state intervention and private family life in adoption can no longer be assumed.

Chapter

Julie Doughty

This chapter explains the law of adoption. When an adoption order is made by a court in England and Wales, the legal connection between a child and her birth family is completely and permanently ended and she is transferred in to a new family. Changes in society during the second half of the twentieth century created a new model of adoption, reflected in the legislative framework of the Adoption and Children Act 2002. However, there are ongoing complex questions about what the purpose of adoption should be. The idea that a court order can overcome biological and social relationships can seem artificial, imposing a fictitious narrative that might be difficult to sustain throughout a lifetime. The chapter also discusses special guardianship in the context of alternatives to adoption.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the place of adoption within the government’s child protection policy, the legal framework for adoption under the Adoption and Children Act 2002 (ACA 2002), the core principles underpinning the ACA 2002, the adoption process, and the ongoing reform agenda. It considers the application of the welfare principle to three contentious issues: (i) the importance of the birth family in an adoption dispute; (ii) trans-racial adoption; and (iii) step-parent adoptions and adoptions by a sole natural parent. The chapter also examines the issue of ‘open adoption’, focusing on adopted children’s right to information about their birth families and provision for post-adoption contact, and, finally, considers the main alternative to adoption: special guardianship.

Chapter

This chapter is devoted to the Roman law of persons and family. As in modern legal studies, so in Roman law, it is the first branch of private law that students are taught, primarily in order to understand the concept of ‘legal personhood’. This chapter covers the paterfamilias (head of the household); marriage and divorce; adoption; and guardianship. The head of the household was the eldest living male ancestor of a specific family. He had in his power (potestas) all descendants traced through the male line (and also exercised forms of control over other members of the household). Roman law accorded the head of the household extensive legal entitlements, not only vis-à-vis the members of the household, but also its property. The motivation of this state of affairs lies in the recognition in Roman law of the family unit as legally significant entity.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. This chapter deals with the public law relating to children, contained in Parts III, IV, and V of the Children Act 1989, and the law relating to adoption, under the Adoption and Children Act 2002. The questions contained in this chapter are a mixture of essay and problem questions that focus on: emergency protection for children, i.e. police protection, emergency protection orders, and local authority enquires; care, supervision, and education supervision orders; the difference between adoption and special guardianship orders and finally, the requirements and procedures for adoption.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. This chapter deals with the public law relating to children, contained in Parts III, IV, and V of the Children Act 1989, and the law relating to adoption, under the Adoption and Children Act 2002. The questions contained in this chapter are a mixture of essay and problem questions that focus on: emergency protection for children, i.e. police protection, emergency protection orders, and local authority enquires; care, supervision, and education supervision orders; the difference between adoption and special guardianship orders and finally, the requirements and procedures for adoption.

Book

Joanna Miles, Rob George, and Sonia Harris-Short

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. Drawing on extensive experience, the authors offer a detailed and authoritative exposition of family law illustrated by materials carefully selected from a wide range of sources. The book’s principal aims are to provide readers with a thorough understanding of family law, in a way that stimulates critical reflection. Readers are encouraged to consider how and why the law has developed as it has, what policies it is seeking to pursue, whether it achieves the right balance between the rights and interests of individual family members and the wider public interest, and how it operates in practice. This edition provides updates and revised discussion on: civil partnership after R (Steinfeld and Keidan) (2018); divorce law following Owens v Owens (2018) and the government’s consultation on reform; domestic abuse, including consultation ahead of the draft Domestic Abuse Bill and forced marriage; rights under the ECHR and UNCRC in children proceedings; surrogacy following Re Z (A Child) (No 2) (2016); child arrangements orders; specific issue and prohibited steps orders, including relocation law; local authority voluntary accommodation following Williams v London Borough of Hackney (2018). There is a new chapter dedicated to property and financial issues after the breakdown of relationships other than marriage and civil partnership. The introductory chapter, supported by materials on the Online Resources, considers some of the contemporary challenges faced by the family justice system.

Chapter

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, Rowena Moffatt, and Helena Wray

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter focuses on non-European Economic Area (EEA) nationals who wish to live permanently with family members who are settled in or are nationals of the UK. The family members of those coming to work or study and of refugees are also briefly considered. It examines marriage-related applications, that is, applications to join a spouse, fiancé(e), civil or long-term partner. It considers the rules relating to adult family members and children; the family life of those with limited leave; refugees and asylum seekers.

Book

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Family Law offers expert advice on what to expect from your family law exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by an experienced examiner, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical family law exam questions; structure a good answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; make your answer stand out; and find relevant further reading. After an introduction on exam skills for success in family law, chapters cover: marriage, civil partnerships, and cohabitation; void, voidable. and non-existent marriages; divorce and judicial separation; domestic violence; family property; financial relief and child support; parenthood and parental responsibility; children's rights and private law; international relocation and abduction; public law and adoption; mixed topic questions and skills for success in coursework assessments.

Book

Polly Morgan

Family Law illustrates the diverse applications of modern family law through real-world scenarios. It starts off by looking at marriage and civil partnership. It moves on to financial provision on divorce and cohabitants and remedies not dependent on divorce. It looks at financial support for children and the various protections in place for domestic abuse. Parenthood and parental responsibility are examined in detail. Children’s rights and welfare are also looked into. Finally, the book considers private law disputes and children and child protection in terms of state support and care, supervision, and adoption.

Book

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Family Law Concentrate is supported by extensive online resources to take your learning further. It has been written by experts and covers all the key topics so that you can approach your exams with confidence. The clear, succinct coverage enables you to quickly grasp the fundamental principles of this area of law and helps you to succeed in exams. This guide has been rigorously reviewed and is endorsed by students and lecturers for level of coverage, accuracy, and exam advice. It is clear, concise, and easy to use, helping you get the most out of your revision. After an introduction, the book covers: families, civil partnerships, and cohabitation; nullity; divorce, dissolution, and judicial separation; domestic abuse; financial provision on divorce or dissolution; Children—private law; Children—public law; adoption; and child abduction. This, the fifth edition, has been fully updated in light of recent developments in the law, including the extension of civil partnerships to heterosexual couples, the Law Commission reviews of the law of surrogacy and marriage and proposals to reform the law of divorce and domestic abuse.

Chapter

This chapter examines the legal mechanisms by which children can be provided with long-term alternative secure family placements: the law on adoption and special guardianship. Topics discussed include: decision-making in relation to adoption; adoption agencies’ role in assessing suitable adoptions; rules relating to parental consent in adoption cases; placement for adoption; applications to adopt; post adoption contact; revocation of adoption; and special guardianship orders.

Chapter

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, and Rowena Moffatt

This chapter focuses on non-European Economic Area (EEA) nationals who wish to live permanently with family members who are settled in or are nationals of the UK. The first part of the chapter covers human rights, particularly Article 8 and its impact on family life. The second part of the chapter considers the immigration rules. The family members of those coming to work or study and of refugees are also briefly considered. It examines marriage-related applications, that is, applications to join a spouse, fiancé(e), civil, or long-term partner. It considers the rules relating to adult family members and children, the family life of those with limited leave, and refugees and asylum seekers.

Book

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Family Law offers expert advice on what to expect from your family law exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by an experienced examiner, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical family law exam questions; structure a good answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; make your answer stand out; and find relevant further reading. After an introduction on exam skills for success in family law, chapters cover: marriage, civil partnerships, and cohabitation; void, voidable and non-marriage; divorce and judicial separation; domestic abuse; family property; financial remedies and child support; parenthood and parental responsibility; children’s rights and private law; international relocation and abduction; public law and adoption; mixed topic questions and skills for success in coursework assessments.

Chapter

N V Lowe and G Douglas

This chapter begins by discussing the revised Brussels II Regulation, which has become the preeminent instrument within the EU and provides the basic rules of jurisdiction for hearing cases concerning children. It then examines the international aspects of adoption and, in that context, the 1993 Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. Next, it turns to the most developed area of international child law, namely international parental child abduction, and in respect of which a number of international instruments come into play. Finally, it discusses the international protection of children as governed by the 1996 Hague Convention on the Protection of Children which the UK ratified in 2012.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines how the status of ‘legal parenthood’ is acquired under English law. It considers different concepts of parenthood and possible approaches to determining legal parenthood; the current legal framework for identifying a child’s legal parents where a child is conceived through natural procreation; and the problems and challenges raised by the use of assisted reproduction techniques and surrogacy.

Chapter

This chapter analyses the statutory employment ‘family-friendly’ rights contained in the Employment Rights Act 1996 and the subordinate legislation which has a bearing on the work–life balance of employees, workers, and other individuals providing personal services. These include the protection of pregnant workers, and the statutory arrangements for maternity leave and maternity pay. It also examines family-friendly measures which seek to achieve a more equal division of family responsibilities between couples, such as the statutory rights to shared parental leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, and parental leave, as well as the rights to request flexible working and to take time off work to deal with dependants.

Chapter

This chapter considers the courts' powers under Part II of the Children Act 1989 to make orders, other than financial orders, in what are termed ‘family proceedings’. It first discusses the original scheme of Part II; changes made by the Children and Adoption Act 2006; and changes made by the Children and Families Act 2014. It then considers section 8 orders; family assistance orders; and section 37 directions.