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Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

14. The Right to a Fair Hearing  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter discusses the right to a fair hearing, which has been used by the courts as a base on which to build a kind of code of fair administrative procedure, comparable to ‘due process of law’ under the Constitution of the United States. Topics covered include administrative cases and statutory hearings, the retreat from natural justice, the right to be heard, the protection of legitimate expectations, and exceptions to the right to a fair hearing.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

14. The Right to a Fair Hearing  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter discusses the right to a fair hearing, which has been used by the courts as a base on which to build a kind of code of fair administrative procedure, comparable to ‘due process of law’ under the Constitution of the United States. Topics covered include administrative cases, the retreat from natural justice, the right to be heard, the protection of legitimate expectations and exceptions to the right to a fair hearing.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

12. Natural Justice and Legal Justice  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter first discusses how the courts have devised a code of fair administrative procedure based on doctrines which are an essential part of any system of administrative justice. It then explains the concept of administrative justice and natural justice; natural justice in the common law; the European Convention and natural justice in administrative proceedings; and the curative effect of access to a court of ‘full jurisdiction’.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

12. Natural Justice and Legal Justice  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter first discusses how the courts have devised a code of fair administrative procedure based on doctrines which are an essential part of any system of administrative justice. It then explains the concept of administrative justice and natural justice; natural justice in the common law; the European Convention and natural justice in administrative proceedings; and the curative effect of access to a court of ‘full jurisdiction’.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

12. Tribunals  

Panels, committees, tribunals, referees, adjudicators, commissioners, and other public authorities decide many thousands of disputes each year over (for example) entitlement to benefits, or tax liability, or political asylum, or the detention of a patient in a secure hospital. The massive array of agencies reflects the great variety of benefits and burdens that twenty-first-century government assigns to people. The array had no overall organization until 2007, when Parliament transformed it into a complex system. This chapter explains the benefits of integrating these decision-making agencies in the new system. The law needs to tailor their structure, processes, and decision-making techniques to the variety of purposes they serve. And the law needs to achieve proportionate process by reconciling competing interests in legalism and informality in tribunal processes.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

13. The Rule against Bias  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter begins with a discussion of judicial and administrative impartiality, including cases when a judge is disqualified because he may be or fairly suspected to be biased, a history of the test bias, and application of the ‘fair-minded and well-informed observer’ test. It then describes the causes and effects of prejudice.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

13. The Rule Against Bias  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter begins with a discussion of judicial and administrative impartiality, including cases when a judge is disqualified because they may be or fairly suspected to be biased, a history of the test bias, and application of the ‘fair-minded and well-informed observer’ test. It then describes the causes and effects of prejudice.

Book

Cover Constitutional and Administrative Law
The purpose of this book is to introduce the reader to the fundamental principles and concepts of constitutional and administrative law. It is highly popular with undergraduates for its clear writing style and the ease with which it guides the reader through key principles of public law. This twelfth edition incorporates the significant developments in this ever-changing area of the law. The book also includes a range of useful features to help students get to grips with the subject matter. These include further reading suggestions to support deeper research, a large number of self-test questions to help reinforce knowledge, and chapter summaries and numbered paragraphs to aid navigation and revision. This new edition has been fully updated to cover all the latest reforms in constitutional and administrative law, including those relating to devolution and Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

1. Introduction  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the definition of administrative law. It then turns to the characteristics of the law, covering the legal systems of Britain and Continental Europe, EU law, European human rights, the development of administrative law in England, and the failure of administrative law to keep pace with the expanding powers of the state in the twentieth century.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

18. Procedure of Judicial Review  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter discusses the application for judicial review. The development of the application is complicated and intertwined with the historical deficiencies and peculiarities of the remedies themselves. Thus, the chapter begins with an account of the defects in the prerogative remedies that spurred the creation of the application. It then discusses the creation of the application for judicial review and subsequent developments; and the divorce of public and private law.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

19. Restriction of Remedies  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

Remedies are awarded only to litigants who have sufficient locus standi, or standing. The law starts from the position that remedies are correlative with rights, and that only those whose own rights are at stake are eligible to be awarded remedies. No one else will have the necessary standing before the court. This chapter discusses the old and new law of standing; discretionary power of the court to withhold remedies; exhaustion of remedies; protective and preclusive (ouster) clauses; exclusive statutory remedies; and ‘default powers’, i.e. special powers under which ministers may take steps to compel local authorities to carry out their functions properly.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

1. Introduction  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the definition of administrative law. It then turns to the characteristics of the law, covering the legal systems of Britain and Continental Europe, EU law, European human rights, the development of administrative law in England and the failure of administrative law to keep pace with the expanding powers of the state in the twentieth century.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

18. Procedure of Judicial Review  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter discusses the application for judicial review. The development of the application is complicated and intertwined with the historical deficiencies and peculiarities of the remedies themselves. Thus, the chapter begins with an account of the defects in the prerogative remedies that spurred the creation of the application. It then discusses the creation of the application for judicial review and subsequent developments; and the divorce of public and private law.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

19. Restriction of Remedies  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

Remedies are awarded only to litigants who have sufficient locus standi, or standing. The law starts from the position that remedies are correlative with rights, and that only those whose own rights are at stake are eligible to be awarded remedies. No one else will have the necessary standing before the court. This chapter discusses the old and new law of standing; discretionary power of the court to withhold remedies; exhaustion of remedies; protective and preclusive (ouster) clauses; exclusive statutory remedies; and ‘default powers’, i.e. special powers under which ministers may take steps to compel local authorities to carry out their functions properly.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

1. Administration and the principles of the constitution  

Administrative law includes a complex variety of processes and doctrines that confer and control public power. This chapter outlines the underlying principles of administrative law. Topics discussed include the core principle of administrative law: opposition to arbitrary use of power. That principle is introduced through the story of habeas corpus from the middle ages to the twenty-first century. The constitutional principles of administrative law also include parliamentary sovereignty, the separation of powers, the rule of law, comity among constitutional authorities, accountability, and a newly emerging principle of open government. The chapter shows how the common law and legislation can achieve adherence to these principles of administrative law.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

17. Boundaries of Judicial Review  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter discusses the scope of judicial review. Judicial review is a procedure for obtaining the remedies specified in the Senior Courts Act 1981, namely the quashing order, the prohibiting order, and the mandatory order and declaration and injunction. The scope of judicial review, therefore, is the same as the scope of these remedies. Their boundaries, as set out already, are fairly clear, but in the non-statutory area they are uncertain.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

5. Public Corporations, Privatisation and Regulation  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter begins with a discussion of public corporations, covering the uses of corporate personality, legal status and liability, and relevance in administrative law. It then describes the mechanisms of privatization and nationalization, the changing nature of regulation, and some regulatory mechanisms, including the regulation of commerce, financial services, and public utilities.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

5. Public Corporations, Privatisation and Regulation  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter begins with a discussion of public corporations, covering the uses of corporate personality, legal status and liability and relevance in administrative law. It then describes the mechanisms of privatisation and nationalisation, the changing nature of regulation and some regulatory mechanisms, including the regulation of commerce, financial services and public utilities.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

7. Personal rights and freedoms  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter considers the rights and freedoms provided by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

17. Boundaries of Judicial Review  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter discusses the scope of judicial review. Judicial review is a procedure for obtaining the remedies specified in the Senior Courts Act 1981, namely the quashing order, the prohibiting order and the mandatory order, and declaration and injunction. The scope of judicial review, therefore, is the same as the scope of these remedies. Their boundaries, as set out already, are fairly clear, but in the non-statutory area they are uncertain.