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Chapter

Jennifer Seymour, Clare Firth, Lucy Crompton, Helen Fox, Frances Seabridge, Susan Wigglesworth, and Elizabeth Smart

This chapter discusses the law and practice relating to the administration and winding up of an estate once the court has issued the grant. It considers the duties and powers of personal representatives; administering the estate; and distributing the estate.

Chapter

Clare Firth, Jennifer Seymour, Lucy Crompton, Helen Fox, Frances Seabridge, Jennifer Seymour, and Elizabeth Smart

This chapter discusses the law and practice relating to the administration and winding up of an estate once the court has issued the grant. It considers the duties and powers of personal representatives; administering the estate; and distributing the estate.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Kennedy [2008] 1 AC 269, House of Lords. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Kennedy [2008] 1 AC 269, House of Lords. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Kennedy [2008] 1 AC 269, House of Lords. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the basic essentials of the law of administration. It addresses two central questions: Who administers the deceased’s estate? What does administration entail? It is the deceased’s personal representatives who administer the estate, either executors or administrators. Executors are the representatives appointed by the testator under his will (usually) to administer his estate. Administrators, on the other hand, are appointed by the court. This occurs where the deceased died intestate or, less frequently, where there was a will but no proving executor. The administration of the estate entails principally obtaining a grant of representation—a grant of probate in the case of a will, a grant of letters of administration in an intestacy—collecting and managing the assets of the estate, paying the debts and liabilities, and distributing the net estate according to the testator’s will or the rules of intestacy.

Chapter

This chapter examines the different procedures available to companies that are experiencing financial difficulties. The chapter begins by examining what is a rescue culture, and the extent to which such a culture is present in the UK. The chapter then discusses a series of mechanisms that are designed to rescue a struggling company, namely administration and company voluntary arrangements. Receivership is then discussed, which is not a rescue procedure, but a mechanism designed to allow a creditor to recover monies owed. The chapter then looks at winding up (or liquidation) which is the process whereby the assets of the company are realized and paid out, prior to the company being dissolved. The chapter ends by looking at the rules relating to dissolution and restoration.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the main duties and powers of trustees. Rather than rigidly separating duties and powers, it presents the duties and powers of trustees in a way which reflects how they might arise during the operation of a trust. It first addresses the initial questions of the appointment, removal, and payment of trustees. It then examines issues arising on appointment to the trust and the fiduciary nature of trustees’ duties. Finally, it examines issues likely to arise during the administration of the trust, including the trustees’ powers of investment, beneficiaries’ right to information about the trust, and trustees’ powers of maintenance and advancement.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the various procedures available to companies experiencing financial difficulties that are so severe that the company’s survival is in jeopardy. It focuses on procedures that aim to help struggling companies (such as administration); help creditors recover monies owed (such as receivership); and commence the process of ending the company’s existence and provide for the distribution of its remaining assets (namely winding up).

Chapter

Lee Roach

This chapter examines the rationale behind the rescue culture and the two principal rescue mechanisms: administration and the company voluntary arrangement. The UK has sought to adopt a rescue culture, under which the law offers struggling companies access to several rescue mechanisms. The principal rescue mechanism is administration, under which an administrator is appointed to try and fulfil the purpose of administration. An administrator can be appointed by the court; the holder of a qualifying floating charge; or the company or its directors. A moratorium is imposed once a company enters administration, which prevents certain actions from proceedings. Meanwhile, a company voluntary arrangement is a rescue procedure that allows a company to enter into a binding agreement with its creditors. A company voluntary arrangement begins with a proposal being made, and that proposal must then be approved by the company and creditors.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the main duties and powers of trustees. Rather than rigidly separating duties and powers, it presents the duties and powers of trustees in a way which reflects how they might arise during the operation of a trust. It first addresses the initial questions of the appointment, removal, and payment of trustees. It then examines issues arising on appointment to the trust and the fiduciary nature of trustees’ duties. Finally, it examines issues likely to arise during the administration of the trust, including the trustees’ powers of investment, beneficiaries’ right to information about the trust, and trustees’ powers of maintenance and advancement.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Cheltenham & Gloucester plc v Krausz [1997] 1 WLR 1558, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Cheltenham & Gloucester plc v Krausz [1997] 1 WLR 1558, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Cheltenham & Gloucester plc v Krausz [1997] 1 WLR 1558, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Jennifer Seymour, Clare Firth, Lucy Crompton, Helen Fox, Frances Seabridge, Susan Wigglesworth, and Elizabeth Smart

This chapter provides an introduction to some of the essential principles of revenue law and to the main taxes studied on the LPC. It covers the main taxes; the sources of tax law; who pays tax; the administration of the tax system; and appeals against tax decisions.

Chapter

Stuart Bell, Donald McGillivray, Ole W. Pedersen, Emma Lees, and Elen Stokes

This chapter focuses on national law, while also introducing international and European sources. Environmental law emerges at international, European, and national levels partly because the complex, interconnected nature of environmental problems requires a range of solutions at all of these levels. Some of the key characteristics of environmental laws that help to explain both the form and function of UK environmental law are examined here. The chapter also considers the institutions that are involved in the administration of environmental law and policy. The administration of environmental law and policy is carried out by a diversity of bodies, including government departments, regulatory agencies such as the Environment Agency, and a range of quasi-governmental bodies. The focus here is almost exclusively on UK structures and institutions. An underlying theme of the chapter is the way in which administrative structures are used to encourage the integration of environmental law and policy both internally—for example, through the creation of the Environment Agency as a unified regulatory agency—and externally; for example, through various methods of scrutinizing environmental policy across government departments.

Chapter

Clare Firth, Jennifer Seymour, Lucy Crompton, Helen Fox, Frances Seabridge, Jennifer Seymour, and Elizabeth Smart

This chapter provides an introduction to some of the essential principles of revenue law and to the main taxes studied on the LPC. It covers the main taxes; the sources of tax law; who pays tax; the administration of the tax system; and appeals against tax decisions.

Chapter

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the concept of territory. It explains key terms and distinctions, including sovereignty and jurisdiction, sovereignty and ownership, sovereignty and administration, and ‘sovereign rights’ beyond state territory. This is followed by discussions of territorial administration separated from state sovereignty and restrictions on disposition of territory.

Chapter

This chapter deals with procedures and legislation governing the insolvency and liquidation of a company and who are qualified as insolvency practitioners. It discusses insolvency procedures such as administration, voluntary arrangement, creditors’ voluntary winding up, winding up by the court and the appointment of a provisional liquidator. It considers the effect of insolvency and liquidation procedures on floating charges, court control of insolvency and liquidation procedures, and liability for fraudulent trading and wrongful trading. The legal principles underlying disqualification orders against a company’s directors, the use of an insolvent company’s name, the order of the application of assets in liquidation and the dissolution of a company are also examined.

Chapter

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the idea and importance of constitutions. A constitution is essentially a rulebook for how a state is run, and its function is to impose order and stability; to allocate power, rights, and responsibility; and control the power of the state. Indeed, a state’s constitution sets out the structure and powers of government and the relationship between individuals and the state, and a balanced constitution ensures a balance of power between the institutions of government. New constitutions can arise either through a process of evolution or as an act of deliberate creation. The chapter then considers the UK constitution. Public law is a fundamentally important part of the UK’s national law and is the law about government and public administration. It places limitations on the power of the state through objective, independent controls. It is also known as ‘constitutional and administrative law’.