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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

25. Construction Industry Adjudication  

This chapter looks at the process of adjudication in construction industry disputes. Adjudication resembles arbitration, in that it produces a decision on the dispute, but one that is only of a temporary nature. The process involves an adjudicator reaching a decision very swiftly (only 28 days after appointment), with the idea being to get a decision on how much a contractor should be paid, potentially followed by a full-blown investigation through the courts or in a formal arbitration if either party does not agree with the adjudicator's decision. The underlying policy is ‘pay now, argue later’. An adjudication award is binding, but is not registrable as a judgment, unlike an award in arbitration. Instead, enforcement is through suing on the adjudicator's decision, often followed by the entry of judgment in default or an application for summary judgment.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

32. Enforcement of Settlements and Awards  

This chapter focuses on the enforcement of settlements and awards. The approach taken to enforcement of compromises in large measure depends on the nature of the process used to resolve the original dispute. In adjudicative procedures, enforcement will often be through registering the award with the courts of the state where enforcement is to take place, and then enforcing the award as a civil judgment. An exception is construction industry adjudications, where the decision is not itself registrable. Instead, it may be enforced through bringing court proceedings and entering judgment. In non-adjudicative procedures, if the parties have resolved their dispute, they will have entered into a contract of compromise. Enforcement is through suing on that contract. Alternatively, in a non-adjudicative procedure, the parties may convert the compromise agreement into a court judgment or order, and then enforce that judgment or order.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

2. Overview of ADR Options  

This chapter presents an overview of the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) options available to parties to a dispute in England and Wales, outlining the most commonly used processes. A lawyer should be familiar with the range of ADR options and be able to advise a client on appropriate use of ADR. This includes familiarity with each process, when it should be used, who might attend, and key strengths and weaknesses. ADR options can be broadly divided into processes that are adjudicative (where a third party takes a decision) and those which are non-adjudicative (where the parties approve any proposed settlement). The main non-adjudicative options are negotiation and mediation. The main difference between the two is that a negotiation is normally conducted by lawyers, whereas a mediation includes a neutral third party. Meanwhile, the main adjudicative options are arbitration and expert determination.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System

16. Alternative dispute resolution  

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) describes any method of resolving legal disputes other than through litigation in the courts or tribunals. ADR includes arbitration, mediation, adjudication, conciliation, med-arb, and early neutral evaluation/expert determination. This chapter explains the differences between the various forms of ADR, why ADR exists, its many advantages (compared to litigation), and its disadvantages. The chapter examines case law dealing with the ‘cost consequences’ of a failure by one party to a legal dispute to engage in ADR when presented with the opportunity to do so. The chapter considers whether ADR should be made compulsory and the extent to which the parties to a dispute, having agreed to resolve their dispute through ADR, can be compelled to honour that agreement.

Chapter

Cover International Law

15. Issues of Admissibility and the Law on International Responsibility  

Phoebe Okowa

This chapter examines the legal regime governing the admissibility of claims in international adjudication. Particular attention is paid to the modalities of establishing legal interest in respect of claims brought by States in their own right and on behalf of their nationals. The role of nationality is examined and the problems posed by competing claims in relation to multiple nationalities are explored. The unique nature of the problems raised in extending diplomatic protection to corporations and shareholding interests is considered in light of the jurisprudence of international tribunals. The final section considers the ambit of the rule on exhaustion of local remedies and its effect on the admissibility of claims. The parameters of the rule are explored and circumstances when, as a matter of policy, it ought to be regarded as inapplicable are discussed.

Book

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

Susan Blake, Julie Browne, and Stuart Sime

A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution provides a commentary on all of the major areas of out-of-court dispute resolution. The text is made up of six parts. Part I looks at the history and range of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods. The second part moves on to the interplay between ADR, civil procedural rules (CPR), and litigation. The third part focuses on negotiation and mediation. It looks at styles, strategies, and tactics; preparation for mediation; and the mediation process as a whole. It also touches on international mediation. Part IV is about evaluation, conciliation, and Ombudsmen. The fifth part examines recording settlement. The sixth and final part is about adjudicative ADR. It contains chapters on expert or neutral determination, construction industry adjudication, arbitration, arbitration tribunals, commercial arbitration, international arbitration, awards and orders, High Court jurisdiction in arbitration claims, and, finally, enforcement of settlement and awards.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

26. Arbitration  

This chapter discusses arbitration, which is an adjudicative dispute resolution process. It is based on an agreement between the parties to refer a dispute or difference between them to impartial arbitrators for a decision. As a consequence of the contractual basis of arbitration, it is not every dispute that can go to arbitration. The chapter considers the requirements for an effective reference to arbitration, but it should be noted that the agreement to arbitrate may be made before or after the relevant dispute has arisen. This means that there may be a pre-existing arbitration agreement which, when a dispute arises, one of the parties wishes to evade. There is a strong public policy in favour of upholding arbitration agreements; this is supported by the idea that an arbitration clause in a contract is separable from the rest of the substantive contract. Arbitrations in England and Wales are governed by the Arbitration Act 1996, which lays down a highly developed set of procedures for arbitrations.

Chapter

Cover Legal Ethics

10. Litigation  

This chapter explores the ethical issues that arise around litigation. It discusses theories of litigation, including disputes over whether litigation is ‘good’. The attitude that anything that helps a client to win in litigation is justified is rarely accepted these days, and there is a need for lawyers to weigh up their duties to the court and to their clients. The chapter covers the adversarial system of litigation in England and Wales, and inquisitorial adjudication. This can create tensions for lawyers between their duties to their clients and their duties the justice system and to the general public. The chapter also covers both criminal and civil litigation proceedings. In addition, the chapter considers advocacy services and the duties that litigators owe to the court.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Law

13. Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes  

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalà

The general obligation of peaceful settlement of disputes complementing the general ban on the use or threat of force prompted States to revitalize and strengthen the traditional means for settling disputes and establish innovative and flexible mechanisms for preventing disputes or, more generally, inducing compliance with international law. This chapter discusses the so-called diplomatic mechanisms for promoting agreement between disputants, the so-called judicial means (arbitration and adjudication), and the interplay between them. The chapter further examines the establishment of more flexible mechanisms for either preventing or settling disputes, in particular non-compliance and supervisory procedures.

Chapter

Cover Environmental Law

7. Courts  

Courts play an important role in environmental law. Among other things, they uphold the rule of law and adjudicate on the legal disputes that inevitably arise. This chapter explores the role of courts in environmental law. It outlines why courts are understood to be important in environmental law, what courts are, the different types of courts relevant to UK and EU environmental law, the importance of access to justice, and the actual and potential role of specialist environmental courts. Overall, what is apparent from this chapter is not only that the role of courts is an important one, but that it is also complex.

Chapter

Cover Legal Ethics

9. Litigation  

This chapter explores the ethical issues that arise around litigation. It discusses theories of litigation, including disputes over whether litigation is ‘good’. The chapter covers the adversarial system of litigation in England and Wales, and inquisitorial adjudication. It also covers both criminal and civil litigation proceedings. In addition, the chapter considers advocacy services and the duties that litigators owe to the court.

Chapter

Cover International Law

12. International dispute settlement and the ICJ  

This chapter examines the various political or diplomatic methods available for international dispute settlement. These methods include negotiation, mediation or ‘good offices’, inquiry, and conciliation. The array of diplomatic techniques available to parties to resolve a dispute is complemented by various means of settling disputes through the application of binding solutions based on the law. Two in particular, arbitration and adjudication, principally developed from earlier forms of non-binding settlement. Though these are different, they are linked by two principal characteristics. Foremost, they allow for a third party to issue a decision that is binding on the parties. Secondly, resorting to these methods requires the prior consent of the parties. The chapter then considers the International Court of Justice, the ‘principal judicial organ’ of the United Nations. The ICJ’s structure was frequently utilized as a model for later judicial institutions, making an enormous contribution to the development of international law.

Chapter

Cover International Law

8. Jurisdiction  

This chapter studies jurisdiction. The term ‘jurisdiction’ is generally understood by international lawyers as describing the extent, and limits, of the legal competence of a State, entity, or regulatory authority, to make, apply, and enforce legal rules with respect to persons, property, and other matters. Jurisdiction is the necessary corollary to State sovereignty under modern international law, for it represents the exercise of authority of that State in relation to conduct, or to consequences of events, that it deems itself competent to regulate. The quintessential areas of regulation that would be regarded as falling within the domestic jurisdiction of a State include the setting of conditions for the grant of nationality and the conditions under which aliens (non-nationals) may enter a State’s territory. The chapter then distinguishes the types of jurisdiction: prescriptive jurisdiction, enforcement jurisdiction, and adjudicative jurisdiction.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to the English Legal System

9. Providing legal services: the legal professions  

This chapter discusses the role both of those professionally qualified to practise law—solicitors and barristers—and of other groups who provide legal/advice services but who do not have professional legal qualifications. It examines how regulation of legal services providers is changing and the objects of regulations. It notes the development of new forms of legal practice. It also considers how the use of artificial intelligence may change the ways in which legal services are delivered. The chapter reflects on the adjudicators and other dispute resolvers who play a significant role in the working of the legal system, and on the contribution to legal education made by law teachers, in universities and in private colleges, to the formation of the legal profession and to the practice of the law.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

2. Human Rights  

This chapter explores the impact of human rights upon property rights and relations, with particular emphasis on Article 1 Protocol 1 and Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights which has been incorporated into English domestic law by the Human Rights Act 1998. It first provides a background on the particular jurisprudence of human rights reasoning before discussing the import of Article 1 Protocol 1, in protecting possessions, and Article 8, in requiring respect for the home. The focus is on home repossession (Article 8), protection against discrimination (Article 14), and right to a fair trial (Article 6). It also considers adjudication under the Human Rights Act 1998, along with the justification formula developed by the Strasbourg Court and how it operates in the context of the particular human rights that relate to land. Finally, it examines the so-called vertical effect and horizontal effect.