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Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

10. Malicious Prosecution  

This chapter considers the ingredients of successful action for malicious prosecution. The claimant must show: that the defendant prosecuted him; that the prosecution ended in the defendant’s favour; that there was no reasonable and probable cause for the prosecution; and that the defendant was actuated by ‘malice’. It covers not merely criminal prosecutions but certain forms of abuse of civil process, for example tort claims alleging deceit or malice. Damage also in all cases is a necessary ingredient. The tort, while ancient, is still being actively litigated, and the chapter analyses a number of recent cases in the higher appellate courts.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

23. Misuse of process and public powers  

This chapter examines the provisions of tort law concerning misuse of process and public powers, these rules having long been features of English law. It discusses elements of the three principal causes of action, which are malicious prosecution (for legal claims brought without reasonable cause), abuse of process (for legal proceedings commenced with a wrongful predominant purpose), and misfeasance in a public office. The chapter highlights the need to balance the protection of individual rights and interests against the conduct of public administration and the administration of justice. This chapter considers also the limits to witness immunity and abuse of the legal process.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

30. Striking Out, Discontinuance, and Stays  

This chapter discusses striking-out orders, discontinuance, and stays in civil proceedings. Rule 3.4(2) of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) allows the court to strike out a statement of case if it appears to the court: that the statement of case discloses no reasonable grounds for bringing or defending the claim; that the statement of case is an abuse of the court’s process or is otherwise likely to obstruct the just disposal of the proceedings; or that there has been a failure to comply with a rule, practice direction, or court order. A party who realizes their case is doomed is often best advised to discontinue to prevent the accumulation of further costs, but often has to pay the costs of the other parties to date. Stays are temporary halts in proceedings, and can be granted for a range of reasons. A stay is normally lifted once the reason no longer applies.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

9. Pre-trial issues: disclosure and abuse of process  

This chapter reviews various procedural mechanisms to ensure that the eventual trial runs smoothly and fairly. In terms of facilitating the smooth running of the trial, it concentrates on ways of screening cases and clarifying some of the issues prior to trial. The disclosure of evidence is a fraught matter in this regard, with an impact on fairness as well as efficiency. In terms of ensuring that the defendant is not subjected to an unfair trial, it examines some question that arise under the broad heading of abuse of process, concentrating on issues of delay and the entrapment doctrine.

Chapter

Cover International Law Concentrate

6. Sovereignty and jurisdiction  

This chapter briefly looks at the nature of sovereignty and its parameters in international law, but essentially focuses on the function and nature of jurisdiction. It first examines the breadth of the space in which sovereignty is exercised; namely, land, sea, and air. Thereafter, it assesses territorial jurisdiction (in both its objective and subjective dimensions) and examines the practice of the four extraterritorial principles of jurisdiction; namely, nationality-based, the protective principle, passive personality, and universal jurisdiction. The chapter then considers instances where national courts refuse to exercise their ordinary jurisdiction, namely, instances where the accused is covered by the privilege of immunity or because his or her arrest was illegal. Finally, it looks at the US practice of extraterritorial jurisdiction, whereby sometimes the sovereignty of other nations has been breached.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

5. Article 102  

This chapter discusses the main features of Article 102 of the Treaty of Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), which is concerned with the abusive conduct of dominant firms. It begins by discussing the meaning of ‘undertaking’ and ‘effect on trade between Member States’ in the context of Article 102. It then considers what is meant by a dominant position and looks at the requirement that any dominant position must be held in a substantial part of the internal market. Thereafter it discusses some general considerations relevant to the concept of abuse of dominance, followed by an explanation of what is meant by ‘exploitative’, ‘exclusionary’ and ‘single market’ abuses. It then discusses possible defences to allegations of abuse, and concludes by considering the consequences of infringing Article 102.