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Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter explores the law relating to accessorial liability or parties to crime. It discusses liability for aiding, abetting, counselling, or procuring the commission of an offence under the Accessories and Abettors Act 1861, the scope of accessorial liability after the decision in R v Jogee [2016] UKSC 8, the effect of withdrawing participation, liability for participation after the offence, protection of the victim, and recommended reforms to the law.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter explores the law relating to accessorial liability or parties to crime. It discusses liability for aiding, abetting, counselling, or procuring the commission of an offence under the Accessories and Abettors Act 1861, the scope of accessorial liability after the decision in R v Jogee [2016] UKSC 8, the effect of withdrawing participation, liability for participation after the offence, protection of the victim, and recommended reforms to the law.

Chapter

22. Assisting and encouraging  

Serious Crime Act 2007, Part 2

This chapter considers the ways in which criminal law applies to those responsible for assisting or encouraging crimes, i.e. the nature and extent of secondary participation in a crime. The following controversies are examined: the conceptual basis for secondary liability; what is meant by ‘aiding, abetting, counselling, and procuring’; the mens rea necessary to establish secondary liability; the elements of ‘joint enterprise’ liability; and the Supreme Court’s decision in Gnango.

Chapter

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

This chapter discusses some of the most important modes of criminal liability and inchoate offences in international criminal law (ICL). Some are well known in national jurisdictions (such as aiding and abetting) and some are more unique to ICL (such as planning or ordering). ICL also covers a limited number of inchoate crimes (preparatory criminal acts that are punishable regardless of whether the crimes are actually committed).

Chapter

Michael J. Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the meaning of accomplices, vicarious liability, joint enterprise liability, and corporate liability. All the parties to a crime are accomplices. The person who perpetrates the crime is referred to as the principal. Others, not being principals, who participate in the commission of an offence are referred to as accessories or secondary parties and will be liable to conviction if it is proved that they aided, abetted, counselled, or procured the commission of the crime by the principal. Vicarious liability is a form of strict liability arising from the master–servant relationship, without reference to any fault of the employer. A corporation is a legal person and therefore may be criminally liable even though it has no physical existence and cannot act or think except through its directors or servants.

Chapter

This chapter examines the commission of crimes. It distinguishes between principals and accessories. It considers a range of ways of being involved in crimes, called ‘modes of participation in crimes’, such as aiding and abetting, ordering or inciting crimes, or being responsible for crimes as a superior. Further, two special doctrines of ‘commission’ have grown up before international tribunals to describe the involvement of leaders as principals in international crimes. These are called joint criminal enterprise and co-perpetration, respectively. Finally, the chapter considers what happens when the one set of facts might satisfy the elements of several different international crimes, giving rise to issues of concurrence of crimes.

Chapter

Michael J. Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and contextual, Criminal Law provides a succinct overview of the key areas on the law curriculum balanced with thought-provoking contextual discussion. This chapter discusses the meaning of accomplices, vicarious liability, joint enterprise liability, and corporate liability. All the parties to a crime are accomplices. The person who perpetrates the crime is the principal. Others, not being principals, who participate in the commission of an offence are referred to as accessories or secondary parties and will be liable to conviction if it is proved that they aided, abetted, counselled, or procured the commission of the crime by the principal. Vicarious liability is a form of strict liability arising from the employer–employee relationship, without reference to any fault of the employer. A corporation is a legal person and therefore may be criminally liable, even though it has no physical existence and cannot act or think except through its directors or employees.