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Chapter

Cover The Changing Constitution

11. The Welsh Way/Y Ffordd Gymreig  

Richard Rawlings

Welsh constitutional development in recent times is characterized by a convoluted and ongoing set of legislative transformations and by the emergence of a distinct policy approach not only for the sub-state polity itself but also under the banner of a ‘new Union’ for the United Kingdom as a whole. Examination of the design and dynamics of the Wales Act 2017 serves to illuminate the difficulties and rewards of the territorial constitutional journey, especially in terms of central government conservatism in the face of principled argument and of the scope afforded for home-grown democratic renewal. In terms of the extended Brexit process, where competing conceptions of the UK territorial constitution are brought to the fore, the Welsh Labour Government is seen combatting potentials for centralization under the rubric of a ‘UK internal market’, deal-making in the name of mutual benefit, and championing a new brand of shared governance in the UK. Today, the workings of the justice system in Wales are being examined on their own for the first time in two centuries by an independent commission established by the Welsh Government. With a new stage in the Welsh constitutional journey in prospect, a series of foundational questions is raised. This chapter reviews the key elements of the arrangements made for devolving legislative and executive power to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, explaining how these arrangements have developed over time and are still doing so. Particular attention is paid to the implications of the result of the independence referendum in Scotland in September 2014, not just for Scotland but also for England. Consideration is given to how mechanisms for making devolution work more effectively might be devised and to what the effects might be on devolution if the UK’s membership of the EU or its commitment to the European Convention on Human Rights are seriously called into question.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

9. Devolution  

Devolution refers to the decentralization of power from central institutions in London to regional institutions exercising executive and legislative authority in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. This chapter explores the principle of devolution, both in terms of its historical development and its constitutional importance. It discusses recent issues and debates relevant to the role that it continues to play in the UK Constitution through the established institutions in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. All this is tied together in consideration of a problem scenario which encourages discussion of the powers of the devolved institutions and their relationship with centralized authority at Westminster.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Justice

2. The police  

Michael Rowe

This chapter, which examines the organisation and delivery of policing, begins considering the ‘crisis’ of policing and suggests that some current concerns have a lengthy pedigree of their own. It then explores the breadth of the police mandate and distinguishes the activities of ‘the police’ from broader aspects of social regulation that might be thought of more widely as ‘policing’. The chapter discusses: the history and development of the police in England and Wales; an organisational map of policing; police accountability and governance; diverse policing and the policing of diversity; and policing strategies.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

2. History of crime and punishment  

Anne Logan

This chapter provides an overview of the major themes in the history of crime and punishment in England and Wales over the last 250 years. It discusses the usefulness of historical research in this field and the research methods employed by historians; some salient features of the history of crime, criminal justice, and punishment; and aspects of criminal justice history that can assist in the understanding of contemporary issues and debates. The chapter demonstrates that the nature of crime and criminal justice at any given time can only be understood within the period's specific political context.

Chapter

Cover The Changing Constitution

14. Federalism  

John McEldowney

Federalism, to date, has proved unattractive to the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is commonly described as a unitary state, whereby governmental power is primarily exercised through a sovereign Parliament at Westminster. The UK may be distinguished from Federal countries, notably the United States or Germany. In federal systems, sovereign power is shared between the federal government and the states. However, the description of the United Kingdom as a unitary state is an oversimplification as there are many instances of devolved, shared and autonomous powers that do not easily fit under a centralized view of the state. These ‘quasi-federal’ elements of the constitution arise through the UK Parliament delegating to regional and local communities a variety of powers and responsibilities through elected local and municipal authorities as well as devolved ‘deals’. Since 1989, powers have been distributed to the four nations of the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland through extensive, and increasing, devolved powers (devolution) including a variety of tax-raising powers. There is also a London Assembly with devolved powers. The future of the UK after Brexit is uncertain and there are deep divisions of opinion. England and Wales voted for Brexit while London, Northern Ireland and Scotland voted to remain within the EU. Different constitutional configurations were suggested for the four nations, during the nineteenth century, including federalism, Irish home rule and independence as well as strengthening local government. No exact definition of federalism emerged from the different variations supported at one time or another during this period. Consequently supporters of federalism have struggled to have a single configuration to make their case. Overall federalism was rejected as inconsistent with the orthodoxy of a unitary state formed from an incorporating union centred around a sovereign Parliament. Has the extent of substantial devolved and delegated powers reached a tipping point that places a form of divisible federalism as a way of addressing current concerns and controversies including Brexit? Any formal adoption of federalism would alter the role of the UK Supreme Court as well as future relations with the EU after Brexit. Federalism might provide a mechanism for a changing unitary state to address 21st-century challenges amidst a perceptible shift to a ‘quasi-federal’ state with devolved governments and many shared or delegated powers.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

6. Legal services and the ethical lawyer  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter examines the development of the legal profession in the UK. It discusses the importance of lawyers to the Rule of Law, and the role of lawyers as professionals. It identifies the range of lawyers and their roles. It then examines the nature of legal services in England & Wales, and their regulation. The chapter then looks at the central role of ethics in lawyers’ work, and the implications of this priority. The chapter identifies changes to the legal profession—changes driven by the wider worlds of politics, society and technology.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Imperial Tobacco Ltd v The Lord Advocate (Scotland) [2012] UKSC 61, Supreme Court  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Imperial Tobacco Ltd v The Lord Advocate (Scotland) [2012] UKSC 61, Supreme Court. This case concerned the devolved legislative competence of the Scottish Parliament, the powers reserved to the Westminster Parliament under the Scotland Act 1998, and how these provisions should be interpreted. The statutory interpretation of constitutional legislation is also considered. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Imperial Tobacco Ltd v The Lord Advocate (Scotland) [2012] UKSC 61, Supreme Court  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Imperial Tobacco Ltd v The Lord Advocate (Scotland) [2012] UKSC 61, Supreme Court. This case concerned the devolved legislative competence of the Scottish Parliament, the powers reserved to the Westminster Parliament under the Scotland Act 1998, and how these provisions should be interpreted. The statutory interpretation of constitutional legislation is also considered. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

4. Local and Devolved Government  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter begins with a discussion of various aspects of local government including its historical development, principal functions, operations and proceedings, revenues, audit system, and central influence and control. It then describes the legal status and responsibilities of the police force and self-government in Scotland and Wales.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

23. Policing  

Trevor Jones

This chapter, which considers some key themes within policing research, begins by discussing the definition of ‘policing’, and its growth as a focus of political concern and criminological enquiry. It outlines the organization and structure of policing in England and Wales. The chapter then examines what the police actually do in practice; provides an overview of some contrasting models of policing; and explores several key debates within the policing literature.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

6. Legal services and the ethical lawyer  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter examines the development of the legal profession in the UK. It discusses lawyers as professionals; the importance of legal services and their regulation; the legal profession in England & Wales; the role of ethics in lawyers’ work and the changing face of the legal profession within society.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

4. Local and Devolved Government  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter begins with a discussion of various aspects of local government including its historical development, principal functions, operations and proceedings, revenues, audit system and central influence and control. It then describes the legal status and responsibilities of the police force and self-government in Scotland and Wales.

Chapter

Cover Medical Law

12. Organ Transplantation  

This chapter discusses organ transplantation. It first considers cadaveric donation, looking at who can become a donor, and which organs can be taken. England, Scotland, and Wales have introduced opt-out systems, which means that if someone has not opted out, their consent to organ donation will be deemed. It then turns to living organ donation, looking at informed consent and the legitimacy of incentives. Finally, it considers the ethical, practical, and legal obstacles to animal-to-human transplantation.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

1. The English Legal System  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter provides an introduction to the English Legal System. Specifically, it explains the meaning of the terms ‘English’, ‘legal’, and ‘system’. It first provides an overview of the constituent parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, namely England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. It describes the types of law that exist and attempts to define what law is. It then discusses the English legal system, which is based on common law and is an adversarial system.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System Concentrate

1. Introduction to the English Legal System  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. This introductory chapter provides an overview of the English legal system (ELS). The study of ELS involves the study of the legal system of both England and Wales; Scotland and Northern Ireland are subject to a separate, yet connected legal system. These four countries are subjected to the laws of the UK; however, each individual constituent has devolved powers allowing them to legislate in particular areas. Where a conflict between laws of the UK and laws of the constituent country arises, the UK law takes precedence. The effect of devolution from the UK to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland does not affect this parliamentary supremacy. Indeed, it has been argued for some time that devolution of power has not gone far enough in allowing Scotland or Northern Ireland to govern themselves.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

41. Confronting state power: dissenting voices and the demand for penal abolition  

Joe Sim

This chapter discusses dissenting voices and demands for penal abolition in line with confronting state power. It starts with the call for defunding prisons being central to the abolitionist praxis in England and Wales, which correlates to George Floyd's brutal murder by a police officer. Additionally, prosecutions add another layer to the abolitionist critique of the dangerous prisoner. Since 1970, abolitionists in England and Wales have demonstrated that another penal and social world is possible through contestation and resistance. The chapter notes the historical movement's idealistic commitment to building a better world, based on a collective, compassionate sense of social justice.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

20. Regulating Leases and Protecting Occupiers  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter reviews the statutory protection potentially available to B if he or she has a lease. It is shown that, in some cases, B can be seen as having a lease (at least, in the sense used by a particular statute) even if B has no property right. A lease can give B status: the status of a party qualifying for statutory protection. As the Law Commission has noted, however, it is questionable whether the availability of such protection should continue to turn on whether B has a lease, rather than a licence, and a new approach has recently been taken in Wales.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

1. The English Legal System  

This chapter provides an introduction to the English Legal System. Specifically, it explains the meaning of the terms ‘English’, ‘legal’, and ‘system’. It first provides an overview of the constituent parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, namely England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. It describes the types of law that exist and attempts to define what law is. It then discusses the English legal system, which is based on common law and is an adversarial system.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan and Ormerod's Essentials of Criminal Law

1. Introduction  

David Ormerod and John Child

This book focuses on substantive criminal law, that is, how offences such as theft and murder are defined. This introductory chapter sets in context criminal offences and defences, first by considering the basis upon which certain conduct is criminalised and other conduct is not. In continuing to set the context, the chapter goes on to consider criminal justice and criminology, criminal evidence, criminal process (including the court structure and central actors), sentencing, civil law protections, and so on. Narrowing to our focus on substantive criminal law—how offences and defences are defined—the chapter moves on to discuss the sources of criminal law, the internal structure of offences and defences, principles of the substantive criminal law, and the subjects to which it applies. Finally, the chapter introduces features on reform and legal application.

Chapter

Cover Constitutional and Administrative Law

7. The structure of the United Kingdom and devolution  

This chapter discusses the structure of the UK and devolution. It first sketches the constitutional history of the UK, presenting a brief outline of events that led to its creation, that is, the union of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The chapter then examines the issue of devolution, which has been particularly important to the people of Scotland and Wales. The key provisions of the devolution legislation enacted in 1998 and more recent legislative developments are reviewed. The chapter concludes by considering the agreements between the UK Government and the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, in particular the Memorandum of Understanding, and the devolution provisions in the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 which facilitated Brexit.