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Chapter

Cover An Introduction to European Law

Epilogue Brexit: Past, Present, Future  

This epilogue discusses the past, present, and future of the British exit (‘Brexit’) from the European Union. It begins by offering a brief historical overview of the past tensions between the United Kingdom and the European Union in an attempt to better explain the ‘special’ unease with which the United Kingdom viewed European integration. A former imperial and global power, its political self-understanding indeed differed from the very beginning from that of other Member States. The chapter then explores the ‘present’ withdrawal process under Article 50 TEU and the ‘Withdrawal Agreement’. It also analyses four possible EU–UK trade relationship options. Will both parties decide to create a common customs union or will they conclude a ‘Canada Plus’ agreement? A future trade deal is currently being negotiated; yet the option of a ‘hard’ Brexit remains.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

20. Epilogue  

Brexit and the Union: Past, Present, Future

This chapter explores the past, present, and future of Brexit. It begins by offering a historical overview of British membership in the Union. With its commitment to European integration often selective, the United Kingdom had come to be seen as an ‘awkward partner’ within the European Union. The chapter then looks at the process of withdrawal and, in particular, the nature and content of Article 50 TEU—the provision that regulates the process. Subsequently, it analyses the post-Brexit Withdrawal Agreement that governs the relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom today. Finally, the chapter tries to look into the future and discusses the prospective partnership options that have been on the diplomatic table for the post-2020 economic relations between the European Union and the United Kingdom.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to European Law

Brexit: Past, Present, Future  

This epilogue discusses the past, present, and future of the British exit (‘Brexit’) from the European Union. It begins by offering a brief historical overview of the past tensions between the United Kingdom and the European Union in an attempt to better explain the ‘special’ unease with which the United Kingdom viewed European integration. The chapter then explores the withdrawal process under Article 50 TEU and the ‘Withdrawal Agreement’ in particular. It then moves to discuss the status of European Union law in post-Brexit Britain. It finally contrasts three possible EU–UK trade relationship options before analysing the EU–UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

3. The Governance of the Health System  

A. M. Farrell and E. S. Dove

This chapter examines the governance of the health system in the UK. In the UK, there are four health services which are often referred to collectively as the National Health Service (NHS). A general overview of the UK health system is provided, which includes examining how health policy is made and how health decision-makers are held to account, what public bodies are involved in the health system, and how the health system is financed. Consideration is given to the impact of current political devolution arrangements in the UK, which has resulted in health care and public health becoming the responsibility of the devolved administrations of Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Thereafter, each of the UK’s four health services are examined in more detail, focusing on their organisational structure, specific health initiatives, and their approach to patient safety and quality improvement.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

19. International Mediation  

This chapter evaluates international mediation. Mediation is particularly effective as an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process for resolving international disputes because it enables linguistic and cultural differences to be managed and respected to a greater extent than is possible in court proceedings. Moreover, it avoids complex arguments about which court has jurisdiction to determine the dispute and which system of law applies to the dispute. The chapter then looks at the EU Directive on mediation in civil and commercial matters, which sets minimum standards for mediation in EU countries. The United Kingdom has implemented the Directive by adding to the suspension of the operation of the limitation period while the parties are attempting mediation in a cross-border dispute, and providing for mediation settlement agreements in such disputes to be made orders of the court for ease of enforcement by enabling parties to apply for a Mediation Settlement Enforcement Order (MSEO).