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Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

18. Unilateral acts, acquiescence, and estoppel  

This chapter discusses the concepts of unilateral acts, acquiescence, and estoppel, and the relation between the three. All three are rooted in the principle of good faith, but unilateral acts are in their essence statements or representations intended to be binding and publicly manifested as such, whereas acquiescence and estoppel are more general categories, consisting of statements or representations not intended as binding nor amounting to a promise, whose binding force depends on the circumstances.

Chapter

Cover International Law Concentrate

8. The law of the sea  

The law of the sea governs the relations of States in respect of the uses of the seas. It allocates competences between, on the one hand, coastal States wishing to extend their jurisdictional reach as far as possible and the flag States, on the other, wishing to have the seas open for vessels to navigate and for other uses. The chapter discusses the laws applicable to each maritime zone; namely, internal waters, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone, the high seas, and the seabed. It also sets out the rules of maritime delimitation between States with opposite or adjacent coastlines.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

4. Competence  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The existence and scope of EU competence are outlined in the Lisbon Treaty: the EU may have exclusive competence, shared competence, or competence only to take supporting, coordinating, or supplementary action. This chapter examines these three principal categories of EU competence, and their implications for the divide between EU and Member State power. It also considers certain areas of EU competence that do not fall within these categories, and the extent to which the new regime clarifies the scope of EU competence and contains EU power. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues of EU competence in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

4. The Supremacy of EU Law and its Reception in the Member States  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions along with examiner’s tips, answer plans, and suggested answers about the supremacy of EU law and its reception in Member States. Both the legal arguments for supremacy and the political logic are often considered in establishing the reasoning for EU law supremacy. The first question concentrates on the reasons for EU law supremacy from the point of view of the Union and in the view of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU (or also abbreviated CoJ)). A general question about the exit process of a state by a Member State in the light of Brexit is included.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

4. Competence  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The existence and scope of EU competence are outlined in the Lisbon Treaty: the EU may have exclusive competence, shared competence, or competence only to take supporting, coordinating, or supplementary action. This chapter examines these three principal categories of EU competence, and their implications for the divide between EU and Member State power. It also considers certain areas of EU competence that do not fall within these categories, and the extent to which the new regime clarifies the scope of EU competence and contains EU power. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues of EU competence in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover International Law

10. Jurisdiction  

Christopher Staker

This chapter focuses on the principles of international law that govern the right of States to apply their laws to conduct and events occurring within or outside their own territories; the resolution of disputes arising from overlapping jurisdictional claims; and the problems of enforcing national laws. The discussions cover the meaning of ‘jurisdiction’; the significance of the principles of jurisdiction; doctrinal analysis of jurisdiction; the territorial principle; the national principle; the protective principle; the universal principle; treaty-based extensions of jurisdiction; controversial bases of prescriptive jurisdiction; types of jurisdiction; limitations upon jurisdiction; inadequacies of the traditional approach; and the fundamental principle governing enforcement jurisdiction.

Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

20. Sovereignty and equality of states  

This considers the uses of the term ‘sovereignty’ to describe the competence of states and equality.

Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

6. Recognition of states and governments  

This chapter begins with a discussion of the ‘declaratory’ and ‘constitutive’ views of recognition. According to the declaratory view, the legal effects of recognition are limited: recognition is a declaration or acknowledgement of an existing state of law and fact, legal personality having been conferred previously by operation of law. The declaratory theory of recognition is opposed to the constitutive view, according to which the political act of recognition is a precondition of the existence of legal rights: in its extreme form this implies that the very personality of a state depends on the political decision of other states. Discussion then turns to the distinction between recognition of states and recognition of governments, collective non-recognition and sanctions, and issues of recognition before national courts.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter traces the development of the European Union. Since its inception in 1952, the EU has matured and developed from a Community of like-minded states into a Union of a greater diversity of states, with a comprehensive legal system which is increasingly penetrating the national legal systems of Member States. From the six original members, the EU now counts 27 Member States. Eleven of the thirteen newer Member States are in Central and Eastern Europe, and have discarded their old Communist regimes, turning into democracies with the qualifications to join the Union. The latest developments and changes, including Brexit and the effects of Covid-19, are also discussed.

Chapter

Cover EU Law Concentrate

4. Direct actions in the Court of Justice of the European Union  

Articles 258–260, 263, 265, 277, and 340 TFEU

Matthew J. Homewood and Clare Smith

This chapter discusses articles in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) that provide for actions that are brought directly before the Court. Under Articles 258 and 259 TFEU, respectively, the European Commission and Member States may bring enforcement proceedings against a Member State in breach of Treaty obligations. Article 260 TFEU, requires compliance with the Court’s judgment. Article 263 TFEU concerns judicial review of EU acts. The outcome of a successful action is annulment. Article 265 TFEU provides for actions against the EU institutions for failure to act.

Chapter

Cover Birnie, Boyle, and Redgwell's International Law and the Environment

1. International Law and the Environment  

This chapter provides an overview of the purpose of this book. It starts by saying what the book does not expect to do. The text does not intend to answer the question whether the law we have now serves the needs of environmental justice or fairness among nations, generations, or peoples. It does, however, attempt to show, inter alia, how international law has developed a framework for cooperation on environmental matters between developed and developing states; for the adoption of measures aimed at control of pollution and conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; for the resolution of international environmental disputes; for the promotion of greater transparency and public participation in environmental decision-making; and for the adoption and harmonization of national environmental law.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

2. Constitutional Nature  

A Federation of States

This chapter discusses the nature of the European Union, presenting two opposing ‘federal’ traditions that have been competing with each other over the past 200 years. It begins by introducing the US federal tradition, which has historically understood a Union of States as a third form of political organization between international and national law. The chapter then moves to the newer German federal tradition. Insisting on the indivisibility of sovereignty, this second tradition ultimately led to the following conceptual distinction: a ‘Union of States’ is either an international organization—like the United Nations—or a nation State—like Germany or the United Kingdom. Finally, the chapter applies both theories to the European Union. From the perspective of the older US tradition, the European Union can be seen as a Federation of States. The German tradition, by contrast, reduces it to a (special) international organization. Which is the better theory here? If legal theories are meant to explain legal practice, one sees that the second theory—insisting on the idea of State sovereignty—runs into serious explanatory difficulties and should consequently be discarded. The European Union is indeed best understood as a ‘Federation of States’.

Chapter

Cover European Constitutional Law

2. Constitutional Nature  

A Federation of States

This chapter discusses the nature of the European Union, presenting two—opposing—‘federal’ traditions that have been competing with each other over the past 200 years. It begins by introducing the US federal tradition, which has historically understood a Union of States as a third form of political organization between international and national law. The chapter then moves to the newer German federal tradition. Insisting on the indivisibility of sovereignty, this second tradition ultimately led to the following conceptual distinction: a ‘Union of States’ is either an international organization—like the United Nations—or a nation State—like Germany or the United Kingdom. Finally, the chapter applies both theories to the European Union. From the perspective of the older US tradition, the European Union can be seen as a Federation of States. The German tradition, by contrast, reduces it to a (special) international organization. Which is the better theory here? If legal theories are meant to explain legal practice, one sees that the second theory—insisting on the idea of State sovereignty—runs into serious explanatory difficulties and should consequently be discarded. The European Union is indeed best understood as a ‘Federation of States’.

Chapter

Cover International Law

1. The history and nature of international law  

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the history and nature of international law. Rather than regulating the behaviour of individuals in their relations with one another, international law is usually portrayed as a legal framework to govern the relations between ‘States’, the organized political entities which are the primary subjects of international law. ‘Public international law’ is to be distinguished from ‘private international law’, which describes the principles that determine the applicability of a certain law or set of laws to situations involving individuals with a foreign or transboundary element. Indeed, private international law regulates the conflicts between rules of different domestic legal orders, while public international law concerns relations between States. Today, public international law has exceeded its foundations as the law of inter-State relations and operates as an integral part of the daily lives of individuals.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

12. Human Rights in the EU  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU human rights law, and the way in which the ECJ developed fundamental rights as part of the Community legal order. The analysis includes the drafting of the EU Charter of Rights, and its application in the post-Lisbon world in which it is legally binding on the EU and on Member States when they act in the scope of EU law. The EU has gradually integrated human rights concerns into a range of its policies. The EU actively promotes its ‘human rights and democratization’ policy in many countries around the world, and uses human rights clauses in its international trade and development policies. It has imposed a human rights-based ‘political conditionality’ on candidate Member States, and claims to integrate human rights concerns throughout its common foreign and security policy. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of EU conceptions of fundamental rights in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

13. Enforcement Actions Against Member States  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. A crucial component of the Commission’s task is to monitor Member State compliance and to respond to non-compliance. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for various enforcement mechanisms involving judicial proceedings against the Member States, which are brought either by the Commission or - much less frequently - by a Member State. Article 258 TFEU establishes the general enforcement procedure, giving the Commission broad power to bring enforcement proceedings against Member States that it considers to be in breach of their obligations under EU law. This chapter discusses the function and operation of the infringement procedure; the relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’ enforcement mechanisms; the Commission’s discretion; types of breach by Member States of EU law; state defences in enforcement proceedings; and the consequences of an Article 258 ruling. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which Article 258 is relevant to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

19. Free Movement of Goods: Duties, Charges, and Taxes  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter deals with Member State action that creates barriers to trade. The most obvious form of protectionism occurs through customs duties or charges that have an equivalent effect, with the object of rendering foreign goods more expensive than their domestic counterparts. This is addressed by Articles 28-30 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). A state may also attempt to benefit domestic goods by taxes that discriminate against imports, which is covered by Articles 110-113 TFEU. These issues are considered within the chapter. The UK version contains a further section analysing the way in which issues of customs duties and taxation are likely to be resolved in future trade relations between the EU and the UK.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

20. Free Movement of Goods: Quantitative Restrictions  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter considers Articles 34-37 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Article 34 is the central provision and states that: ‘quantitative restrictions on imports and all measures having equivalent effect shall be prohibited between Member States’. Article 35 contains similar provisions relating to exports, while Article 36 provides an exception for certain cases in which a state is allowed to place restrictions on the movement of goods. The European Court of Justice’s interpretation of Articles 34-37 has been important in achieving single market integration. It has given a broad interpretation to the phrase ‘measures having equivalent effect’ to a quantitative restriction (MEQR), and has construed the idea of discrimination broadly to capture both direct and indirect discrimination. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning free movement of goods between the EU and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

3. The Sources, Forms, and Individual Remedies of EU Law  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter includes questions on a wide variety of often overlapping points concerned with the sources of European Union (EU) law. The EU sources of law are the Treaties, Protocols, and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, which are regarded as primary sources. There is then the secondary legislation to consider which can be enacted by the institutions of the Union by virtue of the powers given by the Member States and contained in the Treaties. Additional sources of law in the EU legal order are agreements with third countries, fundamental rights, general principles, and the case law of the European Court of Justice (CJEU) establishing, amongst other case law developments, the doctrine of direct effects, supremacy of EU law, and state liability.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

12. Human Rights in the EU  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU human rights law, and the way in which the ECJ developed fundamental rights as part of the Community legal order. The analysis includes the drafting of the EU Charter of Rights, and its application in the post-Lisbon world in which it is legally binding on the EU and on Member States when they act in the scope of EU law. The EU has gradually integrated human rights concerns into a range of its policies. The EU actively promotes its ‘human rights and democratization’ policy in many countries around the world, and uses human rights clauses in its international trade and development policies. It has imposed a human rights-based ‘political conditionality’ on candidate Member States, and claims to integrate human rights concerns throughout its common foreign and security policy. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of EU conceptions of fundamental rights in relation to the UK post-Brexit.