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14. Delivery and payment  

This chapter considers the duty of the seller to deliver the goods and the duty of the buyer to accept the goods and to pay the price. Payment and delivery are concurrent conditions in a contract of sale. This means that the seller must be ready and willing to deliver the goods, and the buyer must be ready and willing to pay for them in accordance with the terms of the contract. The parties to the contract can make whatever agreement they want in respect of delivery and payment and, in practice, will often do so in relation to the time, place, and manner of the delivery and the payment. Where the parties have not agreed on these matters, the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (SGA 1979) lays down certain rules, which are discussed in detail in the chapter. Similar rules apply to consumer sales under the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

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Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

12. Performance of the contract  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter considers the duties of the seller to give a good title to the goods he sells and physically to deliver those goods to the buyer in accordance with the terms of the contract of sale. The chapter also examines the provisions of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 relevant to the sale of a limited title and the implied warranties as to freedom from encumbrances and quiet possession. Finally, it describes the statutory duties of the buyer to take delivery, to accept the goods, and to pay the price.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

8. Introduction and definitions  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter serves as an introduction to the English law governing sale of goods, along with relevant definitions. It introduces the common law of sale of goods and its subsequent codification by the Sale of Goods Act 1893, later consolidated in 1979 and which (following further minor amendments) is now the principal source of the law. It also considers some key definitions relating to sale of goods, before discussing the nature of a sale and how it differs from related transactions such as barter or exchange, bailment, agency, and hire-purchase.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

11. Seller’s obligations as to quality  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter considers the seller’s obligations as to the characteristics and quality of goods sold. The main concentration is on the implied terms under ss 13–15 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 requiring goods to correspond with their description, to be fit for purpose and of satisfactory quality, and to match any sample provided. But considerable stress is also laid on the vital practice of commercial parties to draft their own bespoke terms and oust those otherwise implied. The chapter also covers the contractual liability applying between seller and buyer.

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Cover Commercial Law

15. Statutory implied terms and statutory rights  

This chapter discusses the common law rule of caveat emptor, which today has been largely eroded by the original Sale of Goods Act 1893 (SGA 1893) that introduced the statutory implied terms of quality and fitness for purpose. It is shown here that the principle of caveat emptor is still alive and well in relation to purely private sales because the terms implied by the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (SGA 1979) in relation to the quality and fitness for purpose of the goods only apply to sales made in the course of a business. Sale of goods contracts are still, therefore, governed by the principle of caveat emptor to some extent, although this is subject to other enactments. This chapter also discusses the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (CRA 2015) which came into force on 1 October 2015.

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Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

10. Transfer of title  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter examines how a buyer can get good title to goods where the seller’s own title is non-existent or problematic. It provides an overview of the rule nemo dat quod non habet and then discusses various exceptions to it, including estoppel, sale under the Factors Act 1889, sale under a voidable title, sale by seller continuing in possession, and sale by a buyer in possession. In addition this chapter compares the common law and civil law approaches to the problem and encourages a critical approach to the issues it raises.

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Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

14. Remedies of the buyer  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter, the mirror image of the previous one, focuses on the remedies of the buyer who either does not receive goods or receives a defective delivery. The topic is relatively straightforward, largely restating principles of the general law of contract in the specialised field of sale of goods. The chapter concentrates on three forms of remedy: (1) damages for non-delivery, late delivery, or breach of warranty, (2) the recovery of money paid for a consideration that has totally failed or been validly rejected, and (3) specific performance and injunctions.

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Cover Business Law

9. Statutory regulation of contracts  

This chapter studies the features of legally binding contracts by examining the manner in which the terms of a contract are regulated through statutory intervention. Such legislative measures have come about as a response to the unequal bargaining positions of consumers as contracting parties in business contracts, and the idea that laissez-faire can be contrary to public policy and fairness, for example with certain exclusion clauses. Some examples include statutes such as the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and the Sale of Goods Act 1979 that imply terms into contracts, and the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 that regulates the parties’ use of exclusion clauses. This protects the weaker party to a contract from exploitation and provides minimum rights that may not be waived.