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26. Introduction to EU competition policy  

This chapter examines the competition policy in the European Union (EU), discusses the economics of the social market, and describes the structure and objectives of EU competition provisions and policy. The chapter focuses on Articles 101 and 102 TFEU and covers the basic principles established by Regulation 1/2003. It highlights the decentralisation of the enforcement of competition policy. It also explores policies on competition with third countries. The chapter highlights the complexities that can arise when law and economics interact and reveals the difficult role of the Court of Justice (CJ) to make complex assessments of economics.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

4. Article 101(3)  

This chapter examines Article 101(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Article 101(3) provides a ‘legal exception’ to the prohibition in Article 101(1) by providing that it may be declared inapplicable in respect of agreements, decisions or concerted practices, or of categories of agreements, decisions or concerted practices, that satisfy four conditions. After discussing the burden and standard of proof under Article 101(3) and the application of that provision to agreements, including restrictions of competition by object, this chapter discusses the four conditions in Article 101(3). It then considers the implications of Regulation 1/2003 for undertakings and their professional advisers, and in particular their need to ‘self-assess’ the application of Article 101(3) to agreements. The final section of this chapter describes the system of so-called ‘block exemptions’.

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15. Enforcement of EU competition law  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter discusses the enforcement of EU competition law. It covers the enforcement regime; burden of proof; the relationship between Articles 101 and 102 TFEU, and national competition laws; cooperation with national authorities; cooperation with national courts; the powers of the competition authorities of the Member States; the European Commission’s powers; safeguards for undertakings; the 2006 Leniency Notice; and private enforcement, as well as the impact of Brexit on the enforcement of EU competition law.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

13. Public Enforcement of Article 101 and Article 102 by the Commission and the National Competition Authorities  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter discusses the public enforcement regime for the application of Articles 101 and 102 under Regulation 1/2003. The chapter examines: the complaints procedure; the powers of the Commission, including the investigation and inter partes stages of its procedure; the decisions which the Commission may take, including decisions imposing fines and commitments decisions; judicial review by the EU Courts; the European Competition Network (ECN) and enforcement by national competition authorities, including the requirements of the ECN+ Directive; and the possibility of sanctions against individuals. The chapter also considers the application of fundamental rights provisions in EU competition proceedings.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

7. Articles 101 and 102: public enforcement by the European Commission and national competition authorities under Regulation 1/2003  

This chapter explains the public enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 by the European Commission and the national competition authorities (‘the NCAs’) under Regulation 1/2003. It begins by describing the Commission’s powers of investigation and enforcement, including its power to accept commitments, its leniency programme, the cartel settlement procedure and its power to impose financial penalties. It then discusses the operation of Regulation 1/2003 in practice, with particular reference to the European Competition Network (‘the ECN’) that brings together the Commission and the NCAs. The chapter concludes by providing a brief account of judicial review of the Commission’s decisions.

Chapter

Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

23. EU Competition Law  

This chapter examines the competition policy in the European Union (EU), discusses the economics of the social market, and describes the structure and objectives of EU competition provisions and policy. The chapter focuses on Articles 101 and 102 TFEU and covers the basic principles established by Regulation 1/2003. It highlights the decentralisation of the enforcement of competition policy. It also explores policies on competition with third countries. The chapter highlights the complexities that can arise when law and economics interact and reveals the difficult role of the Court of Justice (CJ) to make complex assessments of economics. This chapter also examines the core elements of competition law in the European Union (EU). It provides a number of examples of the types of agreements covered by EU competition law and shows the dangers which may arise when independent undertakings come together to coordinate their activities to distort competition. The chapter reviews the impact of anticompetitive agreements on the internal market and focuses on the abuse of market power and controls over concentrations. Overall, the chapter discusses the provisions and enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

Chapter

Cover EU Law Directions

13. An introduction to EU competition policy and law  

This chapter provides an introduction to Competition Policy and law in the European Union (EU). There are three sets of rules: one relating to the activities of legal persons—that is, the business undertakings, which now includes rules on concentrations and mergers; one relating to anti-dumping measures; and, finally, one relating to the activities of the member states, principally state aid. The rules concerned with private undertakings are further subdivided into: Article 101 TFEU for agreements between cartels involving more than one entity; Article 102 TFEU, concerned with dominant positions, dealing predominantly with one entity but also applicable to one or more undertakings; and the rules applicable to concentrations and mergers.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

13. Public Enforcement by the Commission and the National Competition Authorities of the Antitrust Provisions  

This chapter discusses the public enforcement regime for the application of Articles 101 and 102 under Regulation 1/2003. It explains the system that applied previously under Regulation 17, and the reasons for, and salient features of, the ‘modernisation’ introduced by Regulation 1/2003. The chapter then examines: the complaints procedure; the powers of the Commission, including the investigation and inter partes stages of its procedure; the decisions which the Commission may take, including decisions imposing fines and commitments decisions; judicial review by the EU Courts; the European Competition Network (ECN) and enforcement by national competition authorities, including the changes to be introduced by the ECN+ Directive; and the possibility of sanctions against individuals.. The chapter also considers the application of fundamental rights provisions in EU competition proceedings.

Chapter

Cover EU Law Directions

13. An introduction to EU competition policy and law  

This chapter provides an introduction to Competition Policy and law in the European Union (EU). There are three sets of rules: one relating to the activities of legal persons—that is, the business undertakings, which now includes rules on concentrations and mergers; one relating to anti-dumping measures; and, finally, one relating to the activities of the member states, principally state aid. The rules concerned with private undertakings are further subdivided into: Article 101 TFEU for agreements between cartels involving more than one entity; Article 102 TFEU, concerned with dominant positions, dealing predominantly with one entity but also applicable to one or more undertakings; and the rules applicable to concentrations and mergers.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

2. The Competition Law and Institutions of the European Union  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter sketches the history and functions of the EU and its institutions in order to set the EU competition rules in context. It then describes the competition provisions themselves and outlines the way in which the rules are applied and enforced, including the public enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 under Regulation 1/2003, the control of mergers with a European dimension under Regulation 139/2004, public enforcement by the national competition authorities of the Member States, and the role of private enforcement. It discusses the position and powers of the European Commission, particularly the role of the Competition Directorate General (DG Comp); the powers of the EU Courts; the significance of fundamental rights and the general principles of EU law in competition cases; the application of competition rules to particular sectors of the economy; and the application of the EU rules to the EEA.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

2. The Competition Law and Institutions of the European Union  

This chapter sketches the history and functions of the EU and its institutions in order to set the EU competition rules in context. It then describes the competition provisions themselves and outlines the way in which the rules are applied and enforced, including the public enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 under Regulation 1/2003, the control of mergers with a European dimension under Regulation 139/2004, public enforcement by the national competition authorities of the Member States, and the role of private enforcement. It discusses the position and powers of the European Commission, particularly the role of the Competition Directorate General (DG Comp); the powers of the EU Courts; the significance of fundamental rights and the general principles of EU law in competition cases; the application of competition rules to particular sectors of the economy; and the application of the EU rules to the EEA.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

4. Article 101(3)  

This chapter examines Article 101(3) of the Treaty of Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Article 101(3) provides a ‘legal exception’ to the prohibition in Article 101(1) by providing that it may be declared inapplicable in respect of agreements, decisions or concerted practices, or of categories of agreements, decisions or concerted practices, that satisfy four conditions. After making some preliminary comments on the application of Article 101(3), this chapter discusses the four conditions in Article 101(3). It then considers the implications of Regulation 1/2003 for undertakings and their professional advisers, and in particular their need to ‘self-assess’ the application of Article 101(3) to agreements. The final section of this chapter describes the system of so-called ‘block exemptions’.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

7. Articles 101 and 102: public enforcement by the European Commission and national competition authorities under Regulation 1/2003  

This chapter explains the public enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 by European Commission and the national competition authorities under Regulation 1/2003. It begins by describing the Commission’s powers of investigation and enforcement, including its power to accept commitments, its leniency programme, the cartel settlement procedure, and its power to impose financial penalties. It then discusses the operation of Regulation 1/2003 in practice, with particular reference to the European Competition Network (‘the ECN’) that brings together the Commission and the national competition authorities of the Member States (‘the NCAs’) and the ECN+ Directive that strengthens the powers of the NCAs. The chapter concludes by providing a brief account of judicial review of the Commission’s decisions.