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Chapter

This chapter examines the court’s powers to exclude unlawfully or unfairly obtained prosecution evidence by examining the position in relation to confession evidence excluded under ss. 76 and 78 Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984; and other prosecution evidence excluded at common law, under s. 78 PACE 1984, and as an abuse of process.

Chapter

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

This chapter examines the court’s powers to exclude unlawfully or unfairly obtained prosecution evidence by examining the position in relation to confession evidence excluded under ss. 76 and 78 Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984; and other prosecution evidence excluded at common law, under s. 78 PACE 1984, and as an abuse of process.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines the issues arising from more extended detention, generally at a police station. It focuses on the grounds for such extended detention prior to charge, and the procedures which must be adopted in relation to it. It considers the rights of a citizen who is a ‘suspect’ but against whom the police do not have sufficient evidence to charge with an offence. Relevant provisions under the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 are discussed.

Chapter

This chapter examines the questioning stage of the criminal process, looking at the role and powers of the police. It covers the context of questioning and interviewing of suspects, interviewing victims, and confessions in court. It argues that confessions remain a suspect type of evidence despite the fact that the police questioning process is well regulated. Police detention will always be stressful, and innocent suspects will always have some incentives for confessing. This is why there is a case to be made for the corroboration of confessions. It is also crucial that the gains made since the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) are not undermined by government initiatives to cut costs by reducing the amount and quality of legal advice available to suspects.

Chapter

This chapter considers the following: the dangers of eye-witness identification; how identification evidence is obtained by the police during the police investigation; the pre-trial safeguards contained in the identification procedures under Code D of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE); the admissibility of eye-witness evidence obtained in breach of Code D; obtaining fingerprints, intimate and non-intimate samples at the police station; DNA evidence and identification evidence given by expert witnesses.

Chapter

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

This chapter considers the following: the dangers of eye-witness identification; how identification evidence is obtained by the police during the police investigation; the pre-trial safeguards contained in the identification procedures under Code D of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE); the admissibility of eye-witness evidence obtained in breach of Code D; obtaining fingerprints, intimate and non-intimate samples at the police station; DNA evidence and identification evidence given by expert witnesses.

Chapter

Chapter 4 examines the extent to which evidence of a confession by an accused person may be utilized by the prosecution at trial. It discusses confessions and miscarriages of justice; mandatory and discretionary exclusions; ‘tainting’ of subsequent confessions; warnings on account of ‘mental handicap’; withdrawal of the case from the jury; partly adverse statements; the use of confessions contravening section 76(2) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984; confessions admissible in evidence only against maker; use of a co-defendant’s confession by a defendant; the voir dire hearing; and reform of the law of confessions.

Chapter

Chapter 4 examines the extent to which evidence of a confession by an accused person may be utilized by the prosecution at trial. It discusses confessions and miscarriages of justice; mandatory and discretionary exclusions; ‘tainting’ of subsequent confessions; warnings on account of ‘mental handicap’; withdrawal of the case from the jury; partly adverse statements; the use of confessions contravening section 76(2) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984; confessions admissible in evidence only against maker; use of a co-defendant’s confession by a defendant; the voir dire hearing; and reform of the law of confessions.

Chapter

The police have extensive statutory powers to stop and search and to arrest a person in connection with the investigation of a criminal offence under various statutes, including the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE 1984), the Terrorism Act 2000, the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, and the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005. This chapter examines the powers of stop and search before arrest; powers of arrest under PACE 1984; powers to search a person and his property after arrest; the power to grant street bail; and the right to liberty under Article 5 European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR 1950).

Chapter

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

The police have extensive statutory powers to stop and search and to arrest a person in connection with the investigation of a criminal offence under various statutes, including the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE 1984), the Terrorism Act 2000, the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, and the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005. This chapter examines the powers of stop and search before arrest; powers of arrest under PACE 1984; powers to search a person and his property after arrest; the power to grant street bail; and the right to liberty under Article 5 European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR 1950).

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This introductory chapter discusses the origins of a ‘law of evidence’ and the properties of the law of evidence. The law of evidence is rapidly evolving. Since it determines the critical issue of which particular items of proof parties are actually permitted to produce before a court in support of their contentions, it would be hard to exaggerate the subject’s importance and relevance.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This introductory chapter discusses the origins of a ‘law of evidence’ and the properties of the law of evidence. The law of evidence is rapidly evolving and, particularly in criminal cases, the Criminal Procedure Rules have transformed the environment within which they operate. Since it determines the critical issue of which particular items of proof parties are permitted to produce before a court in support of their contentions, it would be hard to exaggerate the subject’s importance and relevance.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on confessions and on the defendant’s pre-trial silence. It explains how a defendant may be convicted on the evidence of a confession alone. It analyses the definition of a confession as specified in s82(1) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), and how a confession proffered by the prosecution or by a co-defendant may be excluded by rule under PACE. The chapter also considers the preservation of the common law discretion to exclude confession evidence as well as the procedure for police interrogation of suspects under PACE. It examines recent case law on the significance of lack of access to legal advice of a suspect under interrogation. It concludes with an examination of how the jury at trial may draw an inference of guilt under ss34, 36, and 37 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (CJPO), sections which have eroded the right to silence. The influence of the Strasbourg jurisprudence in this area is outlined.