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Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

5. Health Resource Allocation  

A. M. Farrell and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses the allocation of health resources. No resources are finite, and this certainly applies in the health context. Across the UK’s four nations, health care is free at the point of need; this raises complex political and ethical questions about adequate funding, an appropriate calibration of supply and demand, and balance between maximising health and promoting health equity. This chapter explores allocation at the global, national, and individual levels, looking in depth at metrics such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and organisations such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), a public body that produces evidence-based guidance and advice for care practitioners, develops quality standards and performance metrics for those providing and commissioning care services, and provides a range of information services for commissioners, practitioners, and managers across health and social care. This chapter emphasises that while NICE and similar bodies aim to make decisions grounded in clinical need and efficiency, inevitably they must also include a consideration of what is best for the health service itself, and this means that scientific value and social value judgements cannot be dissociated in such a taxation-funded service.

Chapter

Cover EU Law Directions

1. The establishment and development of the European Union  

This chapter examines the history of the establishment and development of the European Union (EU). It discusses the underlying motives for its founding, which include the desire for peace, security against the rising threat from the Soviet Union, and economic development. It describes the origins of the Union which can be traced from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC). This chapter also explains the roles and obligations of the EU in managing the external relations of its members, particularly in international trade. It looks at the subsequent extensive developments to both the Communities and the Treaties.

Chapter

Cover EU Law Directions

1. The establishment and development of the European Union  

This chapter examines the history of the establishment and development of the European Union (EU). It discusses the underlying motives for its founding, which include the desire for peace, security against the rising threat from the Soviet Union, and economic development. It describes the origins of the Union which can be traced from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC). This chapter also explains the roles and obligations of the EU in managing the external relations of its members, particularly in international trade. It looks at the subsequent extensive developments to both the Communities and the Treaties.

Chapter

Cover Foster on EU Law

1. The History and Constitutional Basis of the European Union  

This chapter tries to set the context and provide an understanding of the historical basis of the EU, before looking in detail at its constitutional base. It considers the rationale for the EU, why it was established, what it is, and some of the difficulties encountered along that path to the present day and explains the use of the terms ‘European Union’ and ‘European Community’. The discussions cover the motives for European integration; the founding of the European Communities; the basic objectives and nature of the European Union; the widening and deepening of the Communities and Union; and future developments and conclusions.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

2. The constitutional base of the Union  

This chapter discusses the Treaties which together represent the primary law of the European Union; its constitutional base. These include the Single European Act 1986; the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty) 1993; the Treaty of Amsterdam (signed June 1997, entered into force 1 May 1999); the Nice Treaty (adopted December 2001, entered into force 1 February 2003); and the Treaty of Lisbon (signed December 2007, entered into force 1 December 2009).

Chapter

Cover EU Law

1. The Development of European Integration  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with analysis of the background to European integration. The focus then shifts to analysis of the Treaties and the principal Treaty revisions from the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the present day. The EEC Treaty is examined, followed by the Single European Act, and the Maastricht, Amsterdam, and Nice Treaties. The discussion continues with examination of the failed Constitutional Treaty and the successful ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The penultimate section deals with the impact of the financial crisis, the refugee crisis, the rule of law crisis, the pandemic crisis, and the Brexit crisis. This is followed by an overview of theories European integration offered to explain its evolution. The UK version contains a further section outlining the basic structure of UK legal relations with EU law post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

1. The Development of European Integration  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with analysis of the background to European integration. The focus then shifts to analysis of the Treaties and the principal Treaty revisions from the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the present day. The EEC Treaty is examined, followed by the Single European Act, and the Maastricht, Amsterdam, and Nice Treaties. The discussion continues with examination of the failed Constitutional Treaty and the successful ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The penultimate section deals with the impact of the financial crisis, the refugee crisis, the rule of law crisis, the pandemic crisis, and the Brexit crisis. This is followed by an overview of theories European integration offered to explain its evolution. The UK version contains a further section outlining the basic structure of UK legal relations with EU law post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

1. From EEC to EU: A Brief History of the Development of the Union  

This chapter, which traces the chronological history of the development of the European Economic Community (EEC) into the European Union (EU), explains that the EEC was created by the Treaty of Rome (ToR) in 1957 and discusses Treaties which amended the ToR and led to the development of the EU. These include the Single European Act in 1987, the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999, the Nice Treaty in 2003 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The chapter also describes the nature of the EU and theories explaining the development of the scope of its activities. It summarises the history of the EU, including enlargement, debates over democracy, and the Brexit process, and explains the nature of the EU: supranational, intergovernmental or a form of ‘multi-level governance’?

Chapter

Cover Steiner & Woods EU Law

1. From EEC to EU: a brief history of the development of the Union  

This chapter, which traces the chronological history of the development of the European Economic Community (EEC) into the European Union (EU), explains that the EEC was created by the Treaty of Rome (ToR) in 1957 and discusses Treaties which amended the ToR and led to the development of the EU. These include the Single European Act in 1987, the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999, the Nice Treaty in 2003 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The chapter also describes the nature of the EU and theories explaining the development of the scope of its activities. It summarises the history of the EU, including enlargement, debates over democracy, and the Brexit process, and explains the nature of the EU: supranational, intergovernmental or a form of ‘multilevel governance’?