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Chapter

This chapter examines the history of the establishment and development of the European Union (EU). It discusses the underlying motives for its founding, which include the desire for peace, security against the rising threat from the Soviet Union, and economic development. It describes the origins of the Union which can be traced from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC). This chapter also explains the roles and obligations of the EU in managing the external relations of its members, particularly in international trade. It looks at the subsequent extensive developments to both the Communities and the Treaties.

Chapter

This chapter examines the history of the establishment and development of the European Union (EU). It discusses the underlying motives for its founding, which include the desire for peace, security against the rising threat from the Soviet Union, and economic development. It describes the changing relationship of the UK with the EU, particularly in view of the Brexit decision, and suggests that the origins of the Union can be traced from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC). This chapter also explains the roles and obligations of the EU in managing the external relations of its members, particularly in international trade.

Chapter

This chapter traces the history of the EU, and UK participation in the EU project at its key developmental moments, revealing that the referendum outcome on 23 June 2016 was perhaps a shock, but not a wholly unpredictable one. The EU's overall goals have never quite matched the UK's reasons for participating in the project. The chapter then sets out what goals the EU project has had over time, and how these have fitted with UK priorities and interests. It also looks at each key revision of the EU's foundational Treaties in turn, including the Treaty of Rome, the Maastricht Treaty, and the Lisbon Treaty. The UK willingly limited its sovereignty when it joined the EU in 1972; it has now exercised its sovereignty again by withdrawing from the EU. The chapter concludes with some thoughts on what will happen next in the now four-year-long Brexit saga.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with analysis of the background to European integration. The focus then shifts to analysis of the Treaties and the principal Treaty revisions from the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the present day. The EEC Treaty is examined, followed by the Single European Act, and the Maastricht, Amsterdam, and Nice Treaties. The discussion continues with examination of the failed Constitutional Treaty and the successful ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The chapter concludes with analysis of the impact of the financial crisis, followed by an overview of theories European integration offered to explain its evolution.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the Treaties which together represent the primary law of the European Union; its constitutional base. These include the Single European Act 1986; the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty) 1993; the Treaty of Amsterdam (signed June 1997, entered into force 1 May 1999); the Nice Treaty (adopted December 2001, entered into force 1 February 2003); and the Treaty of Lisbon (signed December 2007, entered into force 1 December 2009).

Chapter

This chapter tries to set the context and provide an understanding of the historical basis of the EU, before looking in detail at its constitutional base. It considers the rationale for the EU, why it was established, what it is, and some of the difficulties encountered along that path to the present day and explains the use of the terms ‘European Union’ and ‘European Community’. The discussions cover the motives for European integration; the founding of the European Communities; the basic objectives and nature of the European Union; the widening and deepening of the Communities and Union; and future developments and conclusions.

Chapter

This chapter provides a history of the European Union. The Second World War, which ended in 1945, led to the creation of new international bodies, such as the United Nations. European countries then created Communities, such as the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), and the European Economic Community (EEC). The UK did not join these Communities at first, but they did successfully in 1972. Since Britain entered the Communities, new Treaties have been signed enlarging the scope of the Communities. One of the most famous and important of these was the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, which created the European Union, replacing the three Communities. The European Union was not only concerned with economic matters but also with some areas of foreign and security policy, justice, and home affairs.

Chapter

1. Constitutional History  

From Paris to Lisbon

This chapter surveys the historical evolution of the European Union in four sections. Section 1 starts with the humble origins of the Union: the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which was set up by the 1951 Treaty of Paris. While limited in its scope, the ECSC introduced a supranational idea that was to become the trademark of the European Economic Community (EEC). Section 2 focuses the EEC, while Section 3 investigates the development of the (old) European Union founded through the Treaty of Maastricht. Finally, Section 4 reviews the reform efforts leading to the Lisbon Treaty, and analyses the structure of the—substantively—new European Union as it exists today. Concentrating on the constitutional evolution of the European Union, the chapter does not present its geographic development.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with analysis of the background to European integration. The focus then shifts to analysis of the Treaties and the principal Treaty revisions from the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the present day. The EEC Treaty is examined, followed by the Single European Act, and the Maastricht, Amsterdam, and Nice Treaties. The discussion continues with examination of the failed Constitutional Treaty and the successful ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The penultimate section deals with the impact of the financial crisis, the refugee crisis, the rule of law crisis, the pandemic crisis, and the Brexit crisis. This is followed by an overview of theories European integration offered to explain its evolution. The UK version contains a further section outlining the basic structure of UK legal relations with EU law post-Brexit.

Chapter

This chapter, which traces the chronological history of the development of the European Economic Community (EEC) into the European Union (EU), explains that the EEC was created by the Treaty of Rome (ToR) in 1957 and discusses Treaties which amended the ToR and led to the development of the EU. These include the Single European Act in 1987, the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999, the Nice Treaty in 2003 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The chapter also describes the nature of the EU and theories explaining the development of the scope of its activities. It summarises the history of the EU, including enlargement, debates over democracy, and the Brexit process, and explains the nature of the EU: supranational, intergovernmental or a form of ‘multilevel governance’?

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with analysis of the background to European integration. The focus then shifts to analysis of the Treaties and the principal Treaty revisions from the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the present day. The EEC Treaty is examined, followed by the Single European Act, and the Maastricht, Amsterdam, and Nice Treaties. The discussion continues with examination of the failed Constitutional Treaty and the successful ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The penultimate section deals with the impact of the financial crisis, the refugee crisis, the rule of law crisis, the pandemic crisis, and the Brexit crisis. This is followed by an overview of theories European integration offered to explain its evolution. The UK version contains a further section outlining the basic structure of UK legal relations with EU law post-Brexit.

Chapter

This chapter, which traces the chronological history of the development of the European Economic Community (EEC) into the European Union (EU), explains that the EEC was created by the Treaty of Rome (ToR) in 1957 and discusses Treaties which amended the ToR and led to the development of the EU. These include the Single European Act in 1987, the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999, the Nice Treaty in 2003 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The chapter also describes the nature of the EU and theories explaining the development of the scope of its activities.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the Treaties which together represent the primary law of the European Union; its constitutional base. These include the Single European Act 1986; the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty) 1993; the Treaty of Amsterdam (signed June 1997, entered into force 1 May 1999); the Nice Treaty (adopted December 2001, entered into force 1 February 2003); and the Treaty of Lisbon (signed December 2007, entered into force 1 December 2009).

Chapter

Economic integration has always been a means to grander political ends in the European Union. According to Article 3(2) of the Treaty on European Union, ‘the Union shall offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers’. This chapter explores EU trade law and discusses basic economic theory, explaining the economic advantages of economic integration and considering its shortcomings. It also looks at the project which, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, reinvigorated what was then the European Community: the completion of the single (or internal) market by the end of 1992. The chapter concludes by focusing on the pursuit of the objective of Economic and Monetary Union, which was first elaborated in the Maastricht Treaty.

Chapter

This chapter examines European Union (EU) law concerning the free movement of workers, establishment, services, and citizenship. It traces the historical development of the free movement rights of the self-employed and other workers and discusses the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). It explains the criteria for being considered an EU worker and describes the basic rights of those economically active EU nationals. It also considers the right of member states to refuse entry or order deportation and explains the procedural rights of persons facing such decisions. It considers the extension of free movement rights, which significantly affected the position of third-country nationals (TCNs), the wholly internal situations, and the extension of free movement rights into European citizenship. This chapter also discusses the general free movement provisions of the EU Directives and the Maastricht Treaty and analyses the case law of citizenship Articles of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), explaining the principle of the wholly internal rule and the treatment of TCNs.

Chapter

This chapter examines European Union (EU) law concerning the free movement of workers, establishment, services, and citizenship. It traces the historical development of the free movement rights of the self-employed and other workers and discusses the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). It explains the criteria for being considered an EU worker and describes the basic rights of those economically active EU nationals. It also considers the right of member states to refuse entry or order deportation and explains the procedural rights of persons facing such decisions. It considers the extension of free movement rights, which significantly affected the position of third-country nationals (TCNs), the wholly internal situations, and the extension of free movement rights into European citizenship. This chapter also discusses the general free movement provisions of the EU Directives and the Maastricht Treaty and analyses the case law of citizenship articles of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), explaining the principle of the wholly internal rule and the treatment of TCNs.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the institutions responsible for executing the different tasks of the European Union (EU). The main seven institutions are complemented by two advisory bodies, the Committee of the Regions and the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), which are responsible for gathering inputs for use in decision-making. The initial institutions of the Commission, Council, European Parliament, and Court of Justice of the EU were expanded to seven to include the European Council, Court of Auditors, and the European Central Bank in 2009 with the entry into force of the Maastricht and the Lisbon Treaties. This chapter also describes the roles and responsibilities of the institutions, including the Council of Ministers of the European Union, the European Parliament, and the European Court of Justice (CJEU).

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the institutions responsible for executing the different tasks of the European Union (EU). The main seven institutions are complemented by two advisory bodies, the Committee of the Regions and the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), which are responsible for gathering inputs for use in decision-making. The initial institutions of the Commission, Council, European Parliament, and Court of Justice were expanded to five to include the European Council, Court of Auditors, and the European Central Bank in 2009 with the entry into force of the Maastricht and the Lisbon Treaties. This chapter also describes the roles and responsibilities of the institutions, including the Council of Ministers of the European Union, the European Parliament, and the European Court of Justice (CoJ).