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Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

17. International Aspects  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter examines the issue of jurisdictional problems in competition law, the ‘internationalisation’ of competition law, and the efforts to deal with competition issues at a global level to match the global operations of undertakings on world markets. It looks first at the question of extraterritoriality in public international law, particularly the concept of objective territoriality. It considers the distinction between prescriptive jurisdiction and enforcement jurisdiction and how these might apply to competition law. It then looks at the development of the effects doctrine in US law and the concept of comity, and at the position of foreign plaintiffs in US courts. It considers how the EU takes jurisdiction by the application of the single economic entity doctrine, the implementation doctrine, and the qualified effects doctrine. The chapter concludes by examining international cooperation in competition law and how competition law must be sensitive to the huge global economic inequalities of the twenty-first century. It looks at the bilateral agreements into which the EU has entered, and the multilateral cooperation to which the EU is party, including cooperation within UNCTAD, the OECD, the WTO, and the International Competition Network (ICN).

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law

3. Murder and Manslaughter  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This chapter presents sample exam questions on murder and manslaughter and suggested answers. The key issues of direct and oblique intent as it applies to murder are considered. The chapter also deals with the changes to the partial defences to murder (loss of control and diminished responsibility) brought about by the statutory provisions in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009, and the differences between the types of involuntary manslaughter (by an unlawful act, by gross negligence, and by recklessness).

Chapter

Cover Complete Public Law

16. Illegality  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter examines ‘illegality’ as a ground for judicial review. Central to judicial review is the idea of ultra vires, which is the principle that public authorities have to act within their legal powers and that if they act or fail to act consistently with their legal powers, they will be acting unlawfully. Case law on the exercise of discretionary powers by public authorities is discussed in depth. In addition, the public-sector equality duty in section 149 of the Equality Act 2010 is explained. The concept of jurisdiction and the distinction between error of law and error of fact are also included under this ground of review.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Directions

11. The key functions of Parliament  

This chapter identifies Parliament’s primary functions of making law and scrutinising government action. Parliament’s scrutiny of government has been defined as ‘the process of examining expenditure, administration, and policy in detail, on the public record, requiring the government of the day to explain itself to parliamentarians as representatives of the citizen and the taxpayer, and to justify its actions’. In the absence of a codified constitution and entrenched limits on executive power, the requirement for the government to answer to Parliament for its actions acts as a check and control. The chapter also considers the legislative process, particularly legislative scrutiny. Secondary legislation made by the government can often be subject to much less scrutiny and debate than primary legislation, and sometimes none at all. These scrutiny gaps increase the risk of arbitrary law-making and ‘governing from the shadows’, again raising rule of law concerns.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Directions

19. Police powers  

This concluding chapter studies police powers. It is the function of the police to keep the public secure by preventing and detecting crime, and maintaining public order. This involves the exercise of public power and powerfully engages the relationship between the citizen and the state. There are clear links between police powers and the rule of law: it is imperative that police powers are not used in a random, arbitrary way; are clear, foreseeable, and accessible; are not unlimited; and are in accordance with the law. Police powers are mostly statute-based, the most significant of which is the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) which was enacted to achieve a balance between protecting citizens’ rights and effective police powers. Under section 66, the Home Secretary issues detailed Codes of Practice regulating the exercise of police powers and providing clear guidelines for the police and safeguards for the public.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Directions

8. Rule of law  

This chapter assesses the rule of law. The rule of law is a constitutional value or principle which measures good governance, fair law-making, and applying law in a just way. It acts as a protecting mechanism by preventing state officials from acting unfairly, unlawfully, arbitrarily, or oppressively. These are also key terms in judicial review. The rule of law is also regarded as an external measure for what a state does; if the rule of law breaks down in a state, it will fail to function in an internationally acceptable way. Ultimately, the core meaning of the rule of law is that the law binds everyone. This includes those in government, who must obey the law. Moreover, any action taken by the government must be authorised by law, that is, government needs lawful authority to act.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

9. Horizontal Agreements—Cartels and Collusion  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter examines how EU competition law applies both to undertakings operating cartels and to undertakings that tacitly coordinate their behaviour on a market. It starts by looking at the difference between ‘explicit’ and ‘tacit’ collusion. The chapter then deals with cartels and other agreements akin to cartels, or which may facilitate explicit or tacit collusion on a market. Next, it considers the problem of tacit collusion and whether, in particular, Articles 101 and 102 operate as effective mechanisms for dealing with the oligopoly problem. The chapter also considers other options that EU competition law might offer to deal with tacit collusion, either ex ante or ex post, such as the use of the concept of collective dominance and sector inquiries under Regulation 1/2003, Article 17.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

1. Guidance on reading cases  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter offers tips for students on how to read cases relating to contract law. In reading a case, it is important to understand how it relates to the legal principles taught in lectures. The chapter also discusses the basics of reading a case and how to read a case in practice, using the case Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. so that the student will learn to appreciate contract case law.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

9. Causation and remoteness of damage  

This chapter discusses the final ‘hurdle’ for the claimant to overcome in the tort of negligence—causation. The claimant must prove that their injuries were caused by the defendant’s actions in both fact and law. To establish cause in fact, the claimant must show, on the balance of probabilities, that the defendant’s breach caused their harm. Tests for cause in law encompass a remoteness test (which involves establishing whether the damage that occurred was foreseeable to the defendant at the time of the negligence). It is the type of harm that must be foreseeable, not its extent. The last part of the test is to ask whether any intervening acts (acts that occurred after the defendant’s breach) broke the chain of causation. If so, the defendant will not be liable.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

1. Getting started  

This chapter is aimed at getting you started in your legal studies. It addresses some of the questions and concerns that students have about studying law and starting at university. It explains something of the nature of the law and how it impacts on society before moving on to look at some of the practicalities involved in studying law as it considers how the degree is structured and how teaching and assessment will work.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

19. Hiring Staff and Establishing the Contract of Employment  

This chapter discusses how employment relations affect all business organizations and why it is especially important to identify the status of individuals engaged in employment. It begins by considering the regulation of the employment relationship and identifies the tests to establish the employment status of individuals, as well as the reasons behind the significance of the distinction between an employee and independent contractor. The three common law tests that have been used to determine employee status—control, integration, and mixed or economic reality—are identified, and how it is most appropriate, in applying the tests, to begin with those established in Montgomery v Johnson Underwood, and then proceed to the final question in Ready Mixed Concrete. The chapter also identifies the terms implied into contracts of employment and the obligations these place on the involved parties.

Book

Cover Intellectual Property Law
All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. Intellectual Property Law: Text, Cases, and Materials provides a complete resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students of intellectual property (IP) law. The only text of its kind in the field, it combines extracts from major cases and secondary materials with critical commentary from experienced teachers in the field. The book deals with all areas of IP law in the UK: copyright, trade marks and passing off, personality and publicity rights, character merchandising, confidential information and privacy, industrial designs and patents. It also tackles topical areas, such as the application of IP law to new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, and the impact of the internet on trade marks, copyright, and privacy. While the focus of the book is on IP law in a domestic context, it provides international, EU, and comparative law perspectives on major issues, and also addresses the wider policy implications of legislative and judicial developments in the area. The book is an ideal resource for all students of IP law who need cases, materials, and commentary in a single volume.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

1. An Introduction to Intellectual Property  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the philosophical and justificatory context in which intellectual property rights (IPRs) have developed, and the international and regional frameworks that have emerged for their protection. It also considers some of the important contemporary debates surrounding IPRs, such as the interface with human rights and the notion of the public domain, and discusses how IP law might develop in the UK following its exit from the EU. There is a brief introduction on how to enforce IPRs.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

13. Patents III: Infringement, Exceptions, and Entitlement  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses patent infringement, exceptions to infringement, and entitlement. Assessment of whether a patent has been infringed involves a three-stage process. First, the patent claims must be construed to see whether the defendant’s activities fall within the scope of the monopoly. Second, the infringing acts that the defendant is alleged to have carried out must be identified. Third, the applicability of exceptions to infringement must be considered. The chapter then focuses on three key exceptions to infringement within the Patents Act 1977: acts done for experimental purposes (‘experimental use’); acts done for private and non-commercial purposes (‘private use’); and the right to continue use begun before the priority date (‘prior use’). Finally, it considers persons entitled to the grant of a patent, including the role of artificial intelligence in inventorship.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

14. Industrial Designs  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses design protection in the UK and EU and the impact of the UK’s departure from the EU on this protection. In particular, it traces the history of industrial design protection before turning to examine in detail the registered designs and unregistered design right systems. The chapter also analyses the relationship between copyright and industrial designs, the tensions that arise from this interrelationship, and how this interface will be regulated in future under UK law.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

3. Copyright II: Authorship, Ownership, Exploitation, Term, Moral Rights, and Economic Rights  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses principles relating to the authorship and ownership of copyright, and the significance of this designation. It examines how owners of copyright can exploit their works by either assignment or licence and the circumstances in which courts can imply terms in the absence of parties having agreed as to how a copyright work can be exploited. The chapter discusses the term of copyright protection and also examines exclusive rights, both moral and economic in nature, that authors and owners respectively have in their copyright works.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Directions

12. The executive  

This chapter discusses the executive, the administrative branch of government which creates and executes policy, and implements laws. It specifically focuses on the organisation of central government in the UK. Central government in the UK carries out day-to-day administration in relation to England and the whole of the UK on non-devolved matters. Its functions include the conduct of foreign affairs, defence, national security, and oversight of the Civil Service and government agencies. Central government essentially consists of the government and Civil Service but modern government is extensive, multi-layered, and complex. The chapter then studies the sources of ministerial power. Ministers’ legal authority to act can derive from statute, common law, or royal prerogative. The royal prerogative is a source of power which is ‘only available for a case not covered by statute’.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Directions

13. The judiciary  

This chapter examines the role of the judiciary in the UK constitution, the critically important concepts of judicial independence and neutrality, accountability of judges, and judicial power. The UK courts administer justice; uphold the rule of law; and act as a check on executive power. Judicial independence requires that judges should be free from external influences in their decision-making, and make decisions without political interference or fear of reprisal. Meanwhile, judicial neutrality means that judges should determine legal disputes impartially, objectively, and solely by applying the law. At first sight, judicial accountability seems inconsistent with being independent, but it is essential that the judiciary adheres to the highest standards in carrying out its functions. In the absence of a codified constitution, the boundaries of judicial power operate within a framework of constitutional principles and conventions, but there is debate over the limits of that power.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Directions

14. Challenging government action  

This chapter focuses on the administrative justice system. Administrative justice refers to the systems that enable individuals to resolve complaints, grievances, and disputes about administrative or executive decisions of public bodies, and to obtain redress. Grievance mechanisms exist to achieve redress and to ensure accountability and improved public administration. They include formal court action through judicial review, but range well beyond the courts to informal, non-legal mechanisms. Whereas a public inquiry may concern a grievance of a larger section of the public and can raise political issues, an inquiry by an Ombudsman concerns a grievance of an individual or small group, with a different fact-finding process. Meanwhile, tribunals determine rights and entitlements in disputes between citizens and state in specific areas of law, such as social security, immigration and asylum, and tax.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Directions

16. Judicial review: grounds and remedies  

This chapter assesses judicial review and the rule of law, the three traditional grounds of judicial review, proportionality, the modern approach to judicial review, and remedies. Judicial review is the rule of law in action. Through judicial review, the courts place constraints on executive power by upholding and projecting rule of law principles on to executive actions. Indeed, it ensures that administrative decisions are taken rationally, in accordance with a fair procedure, and within the powers conferred by Parliament. As such, the traditional judicial review grounds of illegality, irrationality, and procedural impropriety are applied flexibly to protect individuals against the unreasonable, arbitrary, procedurally unfair, or unlawful use of power. Judicial review has unique remedies known as prerogative orders which comprise mandatory orders, prohibiting orders, and quashing orders.