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Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

28. Insolvency  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter deals with insolvency and the principles of insolvency law. It begins with a brief historical background. It then considers the basic objectives of insolvency law as it relates to the bankruptcy of individuals and to corporate insolvency. In particular, it highlights the importance of the pari passu principle to ensure that all creditors participate on an equal footing in the estate in question. The chapter goes on to discuss the various definitions of insolvency before concluding with an overview of insolvency procedures for both individual insolvency and corporate insolvency.

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

9. Corporate rescue and liquidation  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the various procedures available to companies experiencing financial difficulties that are so severe that the company’s survival is in jeopardy. It focuses on procedures that aim to help struggling companies (such as administration); help creditors recover monies owed (such as receivership); and commence the process of ending the company’s existence and provide for the distribution of its remaining assets (namely winding up).

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

17. Insolvency and Dissolution  

This chapter explains how insolvency law applies to an LLP. It considers the various insolvency processes under the Insolvency Act 1986 that can arise, and the position of members in a winding up, both as potential contributories and also as potential creditors. It addresses investigations into LLPs under the Companies Act 1985, and finally explains how an LLP can be struck from the register and how it can be restored.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

21. Corporate reconstructions and takeovers  

This chapter looks at the legal framework that regulated takeovers, as well as discussing corporate reconstruction via a scheme of reconstruction, a scheme of arrangement, and the restructuring plan. A reconstruction under s 110 of the Insolvency Act 1986 involves all or part of a company’s business or property being transferred or sold to one or more new companies, and the original company is then voluntarily wound up. A s 110 reconstruction binds all members and creditors who are affected by it, even those who did not vote for it. Meanwhile, a scheme of arrangement or a restructuring plan, under Pts 26 and 26A of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006) respectively, is a compromise or arrangement between a company and its creditors, or any class of them; or its members, or any class of them. Takeovers are regulated by the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers, which is responsible for drafting and updating the City Code on Takeovers and Mergers.

Chapter

Cover Sealy & Worthington's Text, Cases, and Materials in Company Law

16. Rescue and Insolvency Procedures  

This chapter discusses the formal mechanisms that facilitate major corporate reconstructions. These are: (i) arrangements or reconstructions under the Insolvency Act 1986 ss 110–111; (ii) arrangements, reconstructions, mergers or divisions under the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006) Pts 26, 26A and 27; and (iii) takeovers under CA 2006 Pt 28.

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

8. Partnerships and Insolvency  

This chapter sets out in outline the impact of insolvency on partnerships, the insolvency being that of the firm, one or more of the partners or any combination of those possibilities. It deals in order with the winding up of an insolvent partnership only, the winding up of the insolvent firm with the concurrent bankruptcies of the partners, joint bankruptcy petitions against the partners and separate bankruptcy petitions against the partners. It distinguishes between the rights of partnership and individual creditors and deals with the disqualification of an insolvent partner from the management of a company. The chapter then details the application of the corporate insolvency procedures of voluntary arrangements and administration orders to partnerships.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

22. Corporate rescue  

This chapter examines the rationale behind the rescue culture and the three principal rescue mechanisms: administration, the company voluntary arrangement, and the moratorium. The UK has sought to adopt a rescue culture, under which the law offers struggling companies access to several rescue mechanisms. The principal rescue mechanism is administration, under which an administrator is appointed to try and fulfil the purpose of administration. An administrator can be appointed by the court, the holder of a qualifying floating charge, or the company or its directors. A moratorium is imposed once a company enters administration, which prevents certain actions from proceeding. Meanwhile, a company voluntary arrangement is a rescue procedure that allows a company to enter into a binding agreement with its creditors. A company voluntary arrangement begins with a proposal being made, and that proposal must then be approved by the company and creditors. A new, free-standing moratorium was introduced in 2020.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

23. Liquidation, dissolution, and restoration  

This concluding chapter explores the different types of liquidation, the powers of a liquidator, and the ways in which a company can be dissolved and restored. The Insolvency Act 1986 (IA 1986) provides for two types of liquidation: voluntary winding up and winding up by the court. A voluntary winding up occurs where the members voluntarily wind up the company by passing a special resolution. Meanwhile, compulsory winding up occurs where a person petitions the court for an order of winding up the company, and the court grants such an order. The liquidator’s role is to gather, realize, and distribute the assets of the company to its creditors and, if there is a surplus, to persons so entitled. Ultimately, the process by which a company’s existence is ended is known as ‘dissolution’. A dissolved company can be restored in certain circumstances.

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

9. Corporate rescue and liquidation  

This chapter discusses the various procedures available to companies experiencing financial difficulties that are so severe that the company’s survival is in jeopardy. It focuses on the principal statutory procedures that aim to help struggling companies, namely administration, the company voluntary arrangement, the restructuring plan, and the moratorium. It then moves on to discuss liquidation and the distribution of assets to creditors.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

10. Loan Capital  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines loan capital—borrowing by companies. It focuses on: the legal distinction between fixed and floating charges created by companies over their assets as security for loans, the registration of charges, applications for extension of the period for registration, the priority of charges on insolvency, and the avoidance of charges under the Insolvency Act 1986.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

11. Corporate Insolvency  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines the law on corporate insolvency. It considers the important and topical subject of corporate rescue, reviewing, in particular, administration and company voluntary arrangements. The chapter addresses several issues relating to liquidation, including: winding up petitions and the meaning of ‘inability to pay debts’; assets available to creditors; distribution of assets to creditors; priority of claims; the pari passu principle; and transaction avoidance (dispositions of property after the commencement of winding up, transactions at an undervalue, preferences, voidable floating charges, and transactions defrauding creditors). The potential liability of directors on a company’s insolvent liquidation is considered, concentrating on wrongful and fraudulent trading and disqualification.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

17. Corporate rescue and liquidations in outline  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter deals with the regulatory regime governing corporate rescue and liquidations. It first considers two procedures that were introduced by the Insolvency Act 1986 aimed at implementing the objective of corporate rescue: the administration order and the company voluntary arrangement, the former of which has been fundamentally reformed by the Enterprise Act 2002. It then discusses voluntary winding-up by companies, members, and creditors under the 1986 Act, as well as the grounds on which the court may initiate compulsory winding-up. The chapter also examines the consequences of a winding-up petition on dispositions of company property; winding-up in the public interest; the duties and functions of the liquidator; provisions allowing avoidance of transactions entered into prior to liquidation; the personal liability of directors under the Insolvency Act 1986; and distribution of surplus assets following liquidation. Finally, it outlines a number of amendments to the 1986 Act.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

14. Co-ownership and Third Parties: Applications for Sale  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter considers applications for sale of land held on trust, which are brought by third parties; typically creditors and trustees in bankruptcy of a beneficiary. The chapter explores the different legislation and rules that apply depending on whether the application is made by a creditor or a trustee in bankruptcy. Since the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996 (TOLATA 1996), applications made by creditors are considered under the general provisions of that Act, while those by trustees in bankruptcy are considered under the Insolvency Act 1986.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

11. Statutory shareholder remedies  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter deals with statutory remedies available to aggrieved minority shareholders, particularly their right to seek relief through a winding-up order on the just and equitable ground. It first considers the classic case of Ebrahimi v Westbourne Galleries Ltd (1973), which addressed the scope of the court’s jurisdiction under the just and equitable ground, and presents illustrations of the grounds which will support a petition under s 122(1)(g) of the Insolvency Act 1986. It also examines the issue of whether the principles promulgated in Ebrahimi extend beyond the statutory context of just and equitable winding-up. In addition, the chapter discusses the elements of unfair prejudice; explains locus standi and procedural aspects of s 994 of the Companies Act 2006 together with the remedies contained in s 996; it also considers other specific statutory rights available to aggrieved minority shareholders. Finally, it explains the Law Commission’s proposed reforms for the unfair prejudice provision.