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Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

7. Personal rights and freedoms  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter considers the rights and freedoms provided by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

Cover Civil Liberties & Human Rights

4. Personal Liberty (Article 5) II: Detention and Questioning  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines the issues arising from more extended detention, generally at a police station. It focuses on the grounds for such extended detention prior to charge, and the procedures which must be adopted in relation to it. It considers the rights of a citizen who is a ‘suspect’ but against whom the police do not have sufficient evidence to charge with an offence. Relevant provisions under the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 are discussed.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

3. Human rights law  

The European Convention on Human Rights not only guaranteed certain rights, but also created an international Court. The Human Rights Act gives English judges dramatic but limited techniques for vindicating the Convention rights. This chapter explains what the judges in Strasbourg and in England have done with the techniques for control of administration that result from the Convention and the Human Rights Act. The chapter addresses the content and the structure of the Convention rights, the ways in which those rights are protected in English administrative law, particularly through the Human Rights Act 1998, and the tests of proportionality required by the Convention.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

18. The European Convention on Human Rights and the Human Rights Act 1998  

One of the most fundamental aspects of any constitution are the provisions and measures that protect the rights and freedoms of individuals. In the UK, rights protection is markedly different to that in America, in chief because there is no entrenched Bill of Rights. Rights protection is dominated by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), incorporated by the Human Rights Act 1998, which sets out a number of positive rights that are actionable in the UK courts. This chapter discusses the ways in which these rights are protected in the UK Constitution. It discusses the courts’ historic civil liberties approach and common law protection of rights, before then examining the development, incorporation, and application of the ECHR. The chapter also explores the way in which the various sections of the Human Rights Act 1998 work to ensure appropriate enforcement and protection of rights in UK law.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Concentrate

14. Introduction to human rights in UK law  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) and the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998. The ECHR guarantees civil and political rights: these are the right to life; the prohibition of torture, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment; the prohibition of slavery and forced labour; the right to liberty; the right to a fair and unbiased hearing; the prohibition of retrospective legislation; the right to respect for private and family life; freedom of conscience and religion; freedom of expression; freedom of association; and the right to marry and found a family. The ECHR has been expanded by a series of supplementary treaties called protocols. The First and Sixth Protocols give individuals additional rights which were incorporated into British law by the HRA 1998. This chapter also examines the significance of the Independent Review of the Human Rights Act which is due to be carried out in 2021.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Reference by the Attorney General and the Advocate General for Scotland—United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill and European Charter of Local Self-Government (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill [2021] UKSC 42, Supreme Court (also referred to as the Incorporation References Case)  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Reference by the Attorney General and the Advocate General for Scotland—United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill and European Charter of Local Self-Government (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill [2021] UKSC 42, Supreme Court. On its face, this case (also known as the Incorporate References case) concerns the two Bills of the Scottish Parliament which sought to incorporate two international treaties into Scots law. More significantly, this case—alongside the Continuity Bill Reference case—speaks to the nature of the devolution settlement, its democratic credentials, and the relationship between the UK Supreme Court, the devolved institutions, and the Westminster Parliament. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from the author, Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Reference by the Attorney General and the Advocate General for Scotland—United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill and European Charter of Local Self-Government (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill [2021] UKSC 42, Supreme Court (also known as the Incorporation References Case)  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Reference by the Attorney General and the Advocate General for Scotland—United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill and European Charter of Local Self-Government (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill [2021] UKSC 42, Supreme Court (also known as the Incorporation References Case). On its face, this case concerns the two Bills of the Scottish Parliament which sought to incorporate two international treaties into Scots law. More significnatly, this case—alongside the Continuity Bill Reference case—speaks to the nature of the devolution settlement, its democratic credentials, and the relationship between the UK Supreme Court, the devolved institutions, and the Westminster Parliament. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author, Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned whether interrogation techniques employed by the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland between 1971 and 1975 amounted to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment, contrary to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. More generally, the case note considers the differences between absolute, limited, and qualified rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned whether interrogation techniques employed by the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland between 1971 and 1975 amounted to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment, contrary to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. More generally, the case note considers the differences between absolute, limited, and qualified rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

5. Human Rights Act 1998  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter examines the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) and discusses some of the important issues that arise from its use. It also provides an overview of relevant articles in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The HRA 1998 is quite a short Act and its key parts are in a small number of sections. Perhaps the most important is that of s 6 which places an obligation on public authorities to act in a way compatible with the ECHR; s 7 which prescribes how it can be used to obtain a remedy in the courts. This chapter also links to the previous chapters in terms of discussing how the Act is interpreted.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

5. Human Rights Act 1998  

This chapter examines the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) and discusses some of the important issues that arise from its use. It also provides an overview of relevant Articles in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The HRA 1998 is quite a short Act and its key parts are in a small number of sections. Perhaps the most important is that of s 6 which places an obligation on public authorities to act in a way compatible with the ECHR as well as s 7 which prescribes how it can be used to obtain a remedy in the courts. This chapter also links to the previous chapters in terms of discussing how the Act is interpreted.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

7. Protecting Rights  

This chapter examines the development and nature of constitutional rights. The discussions cover the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); the campaign to incorporate the ECHR into UK law; the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA); a case study on prisoner voting Hirst v UK (No. 2); criticisms of the HRA; the European Union and human rights.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Handyside v United Kingdom (1979–80) 1 EHRR 737, European Court of Human Rights  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Handyside v United Kingdom (1979-80) 1 EHRR 737, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned a book which breached the Obscene Publications Act 1959. The publisher, Handyside, contended that the domestic law (the 1959 Act) breached his Article 10 rights under the European Convention on Human Rights. The case introduced the concept of the ‘margin of appreciation’ accorded to states as regards the implementation of convention rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Brind [1991] UKHL 4, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Brind [1991] UKHL 4, House of Lords. The case considered whether the Secretary of State could restrict the editorial decisions of broadcasters as regards the way in which messages from spokespersons for proscribed organizations were broadcast. The United Kingdom was a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) when the case was heard, but the case also predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. There is discussion of the legal position of the ECHR under the common law in the United Kingdom, and the concept of proportionality in United Kingdom’s domestic jurisprudence. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

R (on the application of Al-Skeini) v Secretary of State for Defence [2007] UKHL 26, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R (on the application of Al-Skeini) v Secretary of State for Defence [2007] UKHL 26, House of Lords. This case concerned the extra-territorial effect of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA)—that is, the effect of the HRA beyond the physical jurisdiction of the United Kingdom. The underlying substantive issue concerned six test cases where Iraqi civilians had died following interactions with British forces occupying the Iraqi city of Basra and the surrounding area. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Handyside v United Kingdom (1979–80) 1 EHRR 737, European Court of Human Rights  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Handyside v United Kingdom (1979-80) 1 EHRR 737, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned a book which breached the Obscene Publications Act 1959. The publisher, Handyside, contended that the domestic law (the 1959 Act) breached his Article 10 rights under the European Convention on Human Rights. The case introduced the concept of the ‘margin of appreciation’ accorded to states as regards the implementation of convention rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Brind [1991] UKHL 4, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Brind [1991] UKHL 4, House of Lords. The case considered whether the Secretary of State could restrict the editorial decisions of broadcasters as regards the way in which messages from spokespersons for proscribed organizations were broadcast. The United Kingdom was a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) when the case was heard, but the case also predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. There is discussion of the legal position of the ECHR under the common law in the United Kingdom, and the concept of proportionality in United Kingdom’s domestic jurisprudence. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

R (on the application of Al-Skeini) v Secretary of State for Defence [2007] UKHL 26, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R (on the application of Al-Skeini) v Secretary of State for Defence [2007] UKHL 26, House of Lords. This case concerned the extra-territorial effect of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA)—that is, the effect of the HRA beyond the physical jurisdiction of the United Kingdom. The underlying substantive issue concerned six test cases where Iraqi civilians had died following interactions with British forces occupying the Iraqi city of Basra and the surrounding area. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Book

Cover Public Law Directions
Public Law Directions provides a balance of depth, detail, context, and critique. The aim is to empower readers to evaluate the law, understand its practical application, and confidently approach assessments. The text offers scene-setting introductions and highlighted case extracts, making the practical importance of the law clear. It shows readers when and how to critically evaluate the law by introducing the key areas of debate and encourages a questioning attitude towards the law. Topics covered include: the UK constitution; constitutional principles and values; power in the UK including an examination of the three arms of state; an analysis of the relationship between the individual and the state; and a close examination of human rights, including a look at the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

R (on the application of Ullah) v Special Adjudicator [2004] UKHL 26, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R (on the application of Ullah) v Special Adjudicator [2004] UKHL 26, House of Lords. The substantive issue in this case concerned an unsuccessful claim for asylum on the basis of a fear of religious persecution. However, the focus of this case note is on Lord Bingham’s views on the extent to which the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights should influence the deliberations of the domestic courts in their application of the Human Rights Act 1998 via the ‘mirror principle’. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.