1-20 of 243 Results

  • Keyword: European Union x
Clear all

Book

Nigel Foster

Foster on EU Law offers an account of the institutions and procedures of the EU legal system as well as focused analysis of key substantive areas including free movement of goods, free movement of persons, citizenship, and competition law including state aids. This clear two-part structure provides a solid foundation in the mechanisms and applications of EU law. The book considers the supremacy of EU law in relation to ordinary domestic law, member state constitutional law, and international law including UN Resolutions. It includes a consideration of EU law and the UK, including a consideration of the Brexit referendum result and its possible consequences; also of Germany and France, as well as a briefer look at a number of other member states. It also contains discussion of human rights, in particular the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the moves of the EU to accede to the ECHR. The material on remedies in Chapter 6 has been rearranged to aid presentation and understanding. It follows the further developments of Article 263 TFEU and has rearranged the material on the free movement of persons to take account of the judgments of the Court of Justice.

Book

Lorna Woods, Philippa Watson, and Marios Costa

Now in its thirteenth edition, Steiner & Woods EU Law is regarded as a trusted EU law book. The book offers a careful blend of institutional and substantive coverage and focuses on explaining the law clearly, as well as raising areas for debate. Part I of the book charts a brief history of the development of the European Union, looks at the institutions of the Union, EU law and general principles of law. Part II provides a framework of enforcement, looks at remedies in national courts, state liability, preliminary references, direct action for annulment, action for failure to act and union non-contractual liability. Part III considers the internal market, comprising harmonisation, customs union, free movement of goods and aspects of individuals’ free movement rights including citizenship, economic rights and social rights. It also introduces key principles relating to discrimination and competition policy.

Chapter

1. Constitutional History  

From Paris to Lisbon

This introductory chapter assesses whether there is a European constitution. When examined in the light of the broader historical tradition, the European Union has a constitution. And this view firmly corresponds to the self-understanding of the European legal order. The ‘real’ problem of the European Union is not whether there is a European constitution, but rather that there is ‘too much constitutional law’; the European Treaties alone contain 413 articles. Length is unfortunately not the only problem of the European constitution, for unlike more mature legal orders, the European constitutional order still struggles with its ‘vocabulary’. The semantic confusions are partly the result of the constant legal revolutions within the European Union. This book then aims to reflect the judicial and legislative practice of the Union as at October 31, 2020. It provides a guide through the most important theories and realities of the European Union law.

Chapter

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the European Union, which is based on two treaties: the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). The TEU contains the general provisions defining the EU, while the TFEU contains the specific provisions with regard to the EU institutions and policies. The EU Treaties are treaties whose substance is mainly made up from institutional provisions that are to provide the framework for subsequent secondary law. The policy areas in which the EU can act are thereby set out in Parts III and V of the TFEU. In order to legislate within one of these policy areas, the Union must have a legislative competence. These competences will constitute the principal legislative fountain for a particular part of European Union law. This book then analyses the creation, enforcement, and substance of European law.

Chapter

This introductory chapter traces the development of the European Union. Since its inception in 1952 the EU has matured and developed from a Community of like-minded States into a Union of a greater diversity of states, with a comprehensive legal system which is increasingly penetrating the national legal systems of Member States. From the six original members, the EU now counts 28 Member States, after Croatia’s recent accession. Eleven of the thirteen States which have joined in the last decade are in Central and Eastern Europe and have discarded their old Communist regimes, turning into democracies with the qualifications to join the Union.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Secretary of State for Transport, ex parte Factortame Ltd (No. 2) [1991] 1 AC 603, House of Lords. This case explored whether a UK court could suspend the effect of primary legislation where it was in conflict with European Community law. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter makes a number of predictions for the English legal system in the coming years. It examines five main issues: continued membership of the Council of Europe, how devolution could affect the legal system of England and Wales, future directions for legal education, the transformation of the justice system through modernization, and the consequences of the vote to leave the European Union.

Chapter

This chapter traces the origins and development of the European Union (EU) and EU law. The European Economic Community (EEC) was created by the European Community Treaty (the EEC Treaty or Treaty of Rome), signed by the six original Member States in 1957. The Treaty on European Union 1992 created the EU, incorporating the EEC, together with two new policy areas, Co-operation on Justice and Home Affairs and Common Foreign and Security Policy. The Treaty of Lisbon amended the two founding Treaties and replaced all references to the ‘European Community’ with ‘European Union’. Together, the two amended Treaties (the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and the Treaty on European Union) constitute the Treaties on which the EU is founded. This chapter also looks at the UK’s withdrawal from the EU under Article 50 (Brexit).

Chapter

This chapter traces the origins and development of the European Union (EU) and EU law. The European Economic Community (EEC) was created by the European Community Treaty (the EEC Treaty or Treaty of Rome), signed by the six original Member States in 1957. The Treaty on European Union 1992 created the EU, incorporating the EEC, together with two new policy areas, Co-operation on Justice and Home Affairs and Common Foreign and Security Policy. The Treaty of Lisbon amended the two founding Treaties and replaced all references to the ‘European Community’ with ‘European Union’. Together, the two amended Treaties (the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and the Treaty on European Union) constitute the Treaties on which the EU is founded. This chapter also looks at the UK’s withdrawal from the EU under Article 50 (Brexit).

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. There are seven principal institutions listed in Article 13 of the Treaty on European Union entrusted with carrying out the tasks of the Union: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, and the Court of Auditors. This chapter considers their respective roles and the way in which they interrelate, and also looks at other important institutions such as the Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions, and agencies.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. There are seven principal institutions listed in Article 13 of the Treaty on European Union entrusted with carrying out the tasks of the Union: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, and the Court of Auditors. This chapter considers their respective roles and the way in which they interrelate, and also looks at other important institutions such as the Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions, and agencies. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relation between the UK and the institutions post-Brexit.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. There are seven principal institutions listed in Article 13 of the Treaty on European Union entrusted with carrying out the tasks of the Union: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, and the Court of Auditors. This chapter considers their respective roles and the way in which they interrelate, and also looks at other important institutions such as the Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions, and agencies. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relation between the UK and the institutions post-Brexit.

Chapter

4. Governmental Structure  

Union Institutions II

This chapter focuses on the internal composition, internal powers, and internal procedures of the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), the European Central Bank (ECB), and the Court of Auditors. The Commission constituted the centre of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), where it was ‘to ensure that the objectives set out in [that] Treaty [were] attained’. In guiding the European Union, it acts (together with the European Council) like the Union's ‘government’. The CJEU constitutes the judicial branch of the European Union. However, it is not the only one to interpret and apply European law. From the very beginning, the European legal order intended to recruit national courts in the interpretation and application of European law. Meanwhile, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) defines the ‘primary objective’ of the European Central Bank as the maintenance of price stability. Finally, the Court of Auditors is staffed by accountants, whose primary task is to ‘carry out the Union's audit’.

Chapter

4. Governmental Structure  

Union Institutions II

This chapter focuses on the internal composition, internal powers, and internal procedures of the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), the European Central Bank (ECB), and the Court of Auditors. The Commission constituted the centre of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), where it was ‘to ensure that the objectives set out in [that] Treaty [were] attained’. In guiding the European Union, it acts (together with the European Council) like the Union’s ‘government’. The CJEU constitutes the judicial branch of the European Union. However, it is not the only one to interpret and apply European law. From the very beginning, the European legal order intended to recruit national courts in the interpretation and application of European law. Meanwhile, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) defines the ‘primary objective’ of the European Central Bank as the maintenance of price stability. Finally, the Court of Auditors is staffed by accountants, whose primary task is to ‘carry out the Union’s audit’.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the EU’s institutional framework. This includes the Commission; the Council (of Ministers) of the European Union; the European Council; the European Parliament; the Court of Justice of the European Union; the Union’s advisory bodies; other Union bodies; and Union financing.

Chapter

This chapter assesses the ‘primacy’ of European law. When the European Union was born, the European Treaties did not expressly mention the primacy of European law. Did this mean that primacy was a matter to be determined by each national legal order; or was there a European Union doctrine of primacy? There are two perspectives on the primacy question. According to the European perspective, all Union law prevails over all national law. This ‘absolute’ view is not, however, shared by the Member States. According to the national perspective, the primacy of European law is relative. The chapter then considers the two national challenges to the absolute primacy of European law. The first is the national claim asserting the relative primacy of European law in the context of fundamental human rights. The second is the contested question of who is the ultimate arbiter of the scope of the European Union's competences.

Chapter

This chapter examines the regional organizations with jurisdiction over human rights in Europe, focusing on the Council of Europe, and describes relevant work of the European Union and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. It highlights the success of the Council of Europe in developing a system which ensures the protection of basic human rights through a judicial mechanism, and concludes that the European Convention on Human Rights has matured into the most sophisticated and effective human rights treaty in the world.

Chapter

This chapter examines the regional organizations with jurisdiction over human rights in Europe, focusing on the Council of Europe, and describes relevant work of the European Union and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. It highlights the success of the Council of Europe in developing a system which ensures the protection of basic human rights through a judicial mechanism, and concludes that the European Convention on Human Rights has matured into the most sophisticated and effective human rights treaty in the world.

Chapter

This concluding chapter explores the European Union’s potential future evolution alongside two dimensions. A horizontal dimension focuses on the widening or narrowing of its membership, while a vertical dimension explores the deepening or flattening of its level of integration. Every change in the membership of the Union represents a fundamental change in its material constitution. This change can occur either through European enlargements or national withdrawals. Brexit in 2020 was the first instance in which a Member State withdrew from the European Union. Ultimately, the possibility of future reductions in EU membership cannot be categorically excluded; yet the political appetite seems minimal. And a national exit from the European Union will also be much harder for those States within the Union that have constitutionally committed themselves to European integration. The chapter then looks at the European Commission’s ‘White Paper on the Future of Europe’, which presents five scenarios offering ‘a series of glimpses into the potential state of the Union by 2025’.

Chapter

Paul Craig

This chapter traces the development of what is now the EU. It first describes the origins of ideas of European unity. It then discusses the various treaties that paved the way towards broader European integration. These include the European Coal and Steel Community Treaty of 1951,the Single European Act 1986, the Treaty on European Union (TEU) of 1992, and the Lisbon Treaty of 2009. Next, the chapter turns to the impact of the global financial crisis on the EU and considers several theories of integration.