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Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

18. Article 15: Derogation in Time of War or Other Public Emergency Threatening the Life of The Nation  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 15 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which enables a state to unilaterally derogate from some of its substantive Convention obligations in public emergencies threatening the life of the nation. The provision is therefore of great importance to the Convention’s general integrity and to the protection of human rights in situations where individuals may be especially vulnerable to the actions of the state in response to a public emergency.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

18. Article 15: Derogation in time of war or other public emergency threatening the life of the nation  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 15 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which enables a state to unilaterally derogate from some of its substantive Convention obligations in public emergencies threatening the life of the nation. The provision is therefore of great importance to the Convention’s general integrity and to the protection of human rights in situations where individuals may be especially vulnerable to the actions of the state in response to a public emergency.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

3. Human rights law  

The European Convention on Human Rights not only guaranteed certain rights, but also created an international Court. The Human Rights Act gives English judges dramatic but limited techniques for vindicating the Convention rights. This chapter explains what the judges in Strasbourg and in England have done with the techniques for control of administration that result from the Convention and the Human Rights Act. The chapter addresses the content and the structure of the Convention rights, the ways in which those rights are protected in English administrative law, particularly through the Human Rights Act 1998, and the tests of proportionality required by the Convention.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

23. The fourth, sixth, seventh, and thirteenth protocols  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Protocols 4, 6, 7, and 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Protocols 4 and 7 protect a selection of civil and political rights not covered by the main Convention text and which make up for the substantive deficiencies of the Convention when compared to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Protocols 6 and 13 concern the abolition of the death penalty in peacetime and in war, respectively.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

7. Protecting Rights  

This chapter examines the development and nature of constitutional rights. The discussions cover the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); the campaign to incorporate the ECHR into UK law; the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA); a case study on prisoner voting Hirst v UK (No. 2); criticisms of the HRA; the European Union and human rights.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

7. Article 4: Freedom from Slavery, Servitude, or Forced or Compulsory Labour  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 4 prohibits slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour. The Court has extended the scope of Article 4 to cover ‘domestic slavery’ and human trafficking. In particular, states have positive obligations to act against conduct by private employers or persons involved in trafficking. Whereas the prohibitions of slavery and servitude are absolute, certain forms of forced or compulsory labour are permitted, for example in fulfilment of a civic duty and work by a convicted prisoner.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

18. The European Convention on Human Rights and the Human Rights Act 1998  

One of the most fundamental aspects of any constitution are the provisions and measures that protect the rights and freedoms of individuals. In the UK, rights protection is markedly different to that in America, in chief because there is no entrenched Bill of Rights. Rights protection is dominated by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), incorporated by the Human Rights Act 1998, which sets out a number of positive rights that are actionable in the UK courts. This chapter discusses the ways in which these rights are protected in the UK Constitution. It discusses the courts’ historic civil liberties approach and common law protection of rights, before then examining the development, incorporation, and application of the ECHR. The chapter also explores the way in which the various sections of the Human Rights Act 1998 work to ensure appropriate enforcement and protection of rights in UK law.

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Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

13. Article 10: Freedom of Expression  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of expression. It first delineates the boundaries of protection of Article 10. It then turns to different categories of expression; specific issues relating to the press and media licensing; the standard ‘prescribed by law’; legitimate aims; the notion of ‘duties and responsibilities’ of the bearers of expression rights; and some distinct methodologies advanced by the Court to deal with defamation cases. The chapter considers the restrictions on expression permitted by Article 10.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

19. Articles 16–18: Other Restrictions upon the Rights Protected  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Articles 16–18 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 16 allows potentially wide-ranging interference with the political rights of aliens. Article 17 aims to prevent totalitarian or extremist groups from justifying their activities by relying on the Convention. Article 18 concerns misuse of powers or breaches of the principle of good faith, and must be applied in conjunction with another Convention’s Article(s).

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

21. Article 2, First Protocol: The Right to Education  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 2 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees the right to education. Article 2 extends to all forms of education provided or permitted by the state—primary, secondary, and higher education, as well as to private schools and universities. The right to education consists of a variety of rights and freedoms for children and parents. These mostly belong to the pupil or student, but parents do have certain rights of their own under Article 2 about the way in which their child is educated.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

22. Article 3, First Protocol: The Right to Free Elections  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 3 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, which imposes a positive obligation on states to secure free elections. The Court has read into this text individual rights to vote and to stand for election, reversing its technique of deriving positive obligations from the expressly articulated guarantees of individual rights contained in other Articles of the Convention. The right of prisoners to vote is included.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

13. Article 10: Freedom of expression  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of expression. It first delineates the boundaries of protection of Article 10. It then turns to different categories of expression; specific issues relating to the press and media licensing; the standard ‘prescribed by law’; legitimate aims; the notion of ‘duties and responsibilities’ of the bearers of expression rights; and some distinct methodologies advanced by the Court to deal with defamation cases.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

19. Articles 16–18: Other restrictions upon the rights protected  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Articles 16–18 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 16 allows potentially wide-ranging interference with the political rights of aliens. Article 17 aims to prevent totalitarian or extremist groups from justifying their activities by referring to the Convention. Article 18 concerns misuse of powers or breaches of the principle of good faith, and must be applied in conjunction with another Convention’s Article(s).

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

21. Article 2, First Protocol: The right to education  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 2 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees the right to education. Article 2 extends to all forms of education provided or permitted by the state–primary, secondary, and higher education, as well as to private schools and universities. The right to education consists of a variety of rights and freedoms for children and parents. These mostly belong to the pupil or student, but parents do have certain rights of their own under Article 2 about the way in which their child is educated.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

22. Article 3, First Protocol: The right to free elections  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, Carla Buckley, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 3 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, which imposes a positive obligation on states to secure free elections. The Court has read into this text individual rights to vote and to stand for election, reversing its technique of deriving positive obligations from the expressly articulated guarantees of individual rights contained in other Articles of the Convention. The right of prisoners to vote is included.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

19. Human Rights and The UK Constitution  

This chapter examines human rights protection in the UK. It examines the reasons why the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) was enacted, the effects of the HRA, the principal mechanisms through which the HRA affords protection to human rights in UK law; the scope of the HRA; and the debate concerning the potential repeal, reform, or replacement of the HRA. The chapter also introduces the notion of human rights, including the practical and philosophical cases for their legal protection, and the European Convention on Human Rights, to which the HRA gives effect in UK law.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

5. Human Rights Act 1998  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter examines the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) and discusses some of the important issues that arise from its use. It also provides an overview of relevant articles in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The HRA 1998 is quite a short Act and its key parts are in a small number of sections. Perhaps the most important is that of s 6 which places an obligation on public authorities to act in a way compatible with the ECHR; s 7 which prescribes how it can be used to obtain a remedy in the courts. This chapter also links to the previous chapters in terms of discussing how the Act is interpreted.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

5. Human Rights Act 1998  

This chapter examines the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) and discusses some of the important issues that arise from its use. It also provides an overview of relevant Articles in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The HRA 1998 is quite a short Act and its key parts are in a small number of sections. Perhaps the most important is that of s 6 which places an obligation on public authorities to act in a way compatible with the ECHR as well as s 7 which prescribes how it can be used to obtain a remedy in the courts. This chapter also links to the previous chapters in terms of discussing how the Act is interpreted.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Handyside v United Kingdom (1979–80) 1 EHRR 737, European Court of Human Rights  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Handyside v United Kingdom (1979-80) 1 EHRR 737, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned a book which breached the Obscene Publications Act 1959. The publisher, Handyside, contended that the domestic law (the 1959 Act) breached his Article 10 rights under the European Convention on Human Rights. The case introduced the concept of the ‘margin of appreciation’ accorded to states as regards the implementation of convention rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Brind [1991] UKHL 4, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Brind [1991] UKHL 4, House of Lords. The case considered whether the Secretary of State could restrict the editorial decisions of broadcasters as regards the way in which messages from spokespersons for proscribed organizations were broadcast. The United Kingdom was a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) when the case was heard, but the case also predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. There is discussion of the legal position of the ECHR under the common law in the United Kingdom, and the concept of proportionality in United Kingdom’s domestic jurisprudence. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.