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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

3. The Civil Courts  

This chapter describes the civil courts in England and Wales. It covers the composition and administration of magistrates’s courts, County Court, and the High Court; jurisdiction; High Court Divisions (Queen’s Bench Division (QBD), Chancery Division (ChD), and Family Division), and specialist courts (Business and Property Courts, Technology and Construction Court, Commercial Court, Administrative Court, Companies Court, Patents Court, and Intellectual Property Enterprise Court). For most civil claims the claimant has a free choice between the High Court and the County Court. Common law claims are suitable for the Queen’s Bench Division, whereas equity claims are more suitable for the Chancery Division. The High Court should be used for the more important and complex claims.

Chapter

Cover O'Sullivan & Hilliard's The Law of Contract

12. Unconscionable bargains  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines the concept of unconscionable bargains and the conditions under which it operates as a vitiating factor. It discusses the history of the court’s jurisdiction to give relief in cases of unconscionable bargains and explains the current scope of relief, considering the elements in modern case law on unconscionable bargains.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

2. Preliminaries  

This chapter discusses the following: (i) facts that are open to proof or disproof in English courts of law: facts in issue, relevant facts, and collateral facts; (ii) the varieties of evidence: testimony, hearsay evidence, documentary evidence, real evidence, circumstantial evidence (including motive, plans and preparatory acts, capacity, opportunity, identity, continuance, failure to give evidence or call witnesses, failure to provide samples, lies and standards of comparison), and conclusive evidence; (iii) the concepts of relevance and admissibility; (iv) the weight of evidence; (v) the functions of the judge and jury; (vi) judicial discretion to admit or exclude evidence.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

2. The Court System and Alternative Dispute Resolution  

This chapter discusses the English court system, civil disputes, and alternative dispute resolution. The courts in England and Wales form a hierarchy. At the lowest level are the Magistrates’ Courts and the County Courts, then the Crown Court and High Court, then the Court of Appeal, and finally the Supreme Court. The chapter considers the role of the Court of Justice of the European Union in interpreting EU law within Member States. It explains the position of the European Court of Human Rights, which deals with allegations of state breaches of the European Convention on Human Rights. Civil disputes arise in every area of business. An explanation of the civil procedure rules from commencing a claim to enforcement of a court judgment is provided. The chapter concludes with a discussion of alternative methods of dispute resolution including arbitration, mediation, and conciliation.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

3. The court system of England & Wales  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter outlines the court system of England & Wales, first explaining key themes and concepts that are essential for understanding the structure and mechanics of the English courts. It then discusses the criminal courts and civil courts of England and Wales; other courts and forums that have significance in the English legal system, such as the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice, but are not part of the English court system; and alternatives to litigation (alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, Ombudsmen, and negotiation).

Chapter

Cover Complete Equity and Trusts

1. The birth of equity and trusts  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter discusses the origin of equity and trusts as distinctive aspects of the English legal system and the subsequent merger of equity with the common. It covers the meaning and origin of equity; what became of the chancery jurisdiction after the Earl of Oxford but before the Judicature Act; the reform of the Court of Equity; the Supreme Court of Judicature Acts 1873–5; the modern relevance of equity; the types and nature of trusts; and the recognition of trusts.

Chapter

Cover Clarkson & Hill's Conflict of Laws

3. Foreign judgments  

Jonathan Hill

This chapter deals with the recognition of enforcement of foreign judgments by English courts. The crucial question is not whether foreign judgments should be recognised and enforced in England but which judgments should be recognised and enforced. There are, broadly speaking, two theories. The first is the theory of obligation, which is premised on the notion that if the original court assumed jurisdiction on a proper basis the court's judgment should prima facie be regarded as creating an obligation between the parties to the foreign proceedings which the English court ought to recognise and, where appropriate, enforce. The alternative theory is based on the idea of reciprocity: the courts of country X should recognise and enforce the judgments of country Y if, mutatis mutandis, the courts of country Y recognise and enforce the judgments of country X. Whichever theory is adopted, the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments is limited by a range of defences which may be invoked by the party wishing to resist the judgment in question. It would be unrealistic to expect the English court to give effect to a foreign judgment which conflicts with fundamental notions of justice and fairness. So, the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments is a two-stage process: Are the basic conditions for recognition or enforcement satisfied? If so, is there a defence by reason of which the foreign judgment should nevertheless not be recognised or enforced? The remainder of the chapter discusses the recognition and enforcement at common law; statutory regimes based on the common law; recognition and enforcement under the Brussels I Recast; and United Kingdom judgments.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

8. Cross-examination and re-examination  

This chapter first discusses cross-examination, the questioning of a witness immediately after his examination-in-chief by the legal representative of the opponent of the party calling him, or by the opposing party in person, and by the legal representative of any other party to the proceedings or by any other party in person. The object of cross-examination is to elicit evidence which supports the cross-examining party’s version of the facts in issue and to cast doubt upon the witness’s evidence-in-chief. It then turns to re-examination. A witness who has been cross-examined may be re-examined by the party who called him. The object of re-examination is to repair damage that has been done by cross-examination.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

3. Domestic Sources of Law: Case Law  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter continues the discussion of sources of domestic law, focusing on material produced by the courts through cases. It covers the reporting of cases, the hierarchy of courts, legal principles, and the operation of precedent. The courts operate a system of precedent known as stare decisis (‘let the decision stand’). The type of precedent set depends on the court sitting, with the most complicated rules occurring in the Court of Appeal. As a general rule of thumb, the court setting the precedent will bind every court below it but the real question is under what circumstances that court is bound by itself.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

3. Domestic Sources of Law: Case Law  

This chapter continues the discussion of sources of domestic law, focusing on material produced by the courts through cases. It covers the reporting of cases, the hierarchy of courts, legal principles, and the operation of precedent. The courts operate a system of precedent known as stare decisis (‘let the decision stand’). The type of precedent set depends on the court sitting, with the most complicated rules occurring in the Court of Appeal. As a general rule of thumb, the court setting the precedent will bind every court below it but the real question is under what circumstances that court is bound by itself.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

2. The English Legal system, Constitution, and Human Rights  

This chapter, in discussing the English legal system and its features, begins by outlining what the law is and some important constitutional principles. The discussion is primarily based on the institutions and personnel involved in the practice and administration of justice. It therefore involves a description and evaluation of the courts, tribunals, and the judiciary, including their powers and the rationale for such authority, as well as the mechanisms of control and accountability. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate how the mechanisms of the justice system work. The English legal system exists to determine the institutions and bodies that create and administer a just system of law. It should be noted here that the UK does, in fact, possess a written constitution, it is merely uncodified.

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

1. The English legal system  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the English legal system. It provides an overview of the courts in the civil and criminal divisions, and their hierarchy. It discusses the source of law, delegated legislation, the impact of membership in the EU and the Human Rights Act 1998, and alternative forms of dispute resolution (ADR). The implications of ADR are increasingly important in civil disputes and essential between businesses where traditional court action can destroy commercial relationships.

Chapter

Cover Civil Liberties & Human Rights

5. Right to a Fair Trial: Article 6  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the right to a fair trial. It first examines the obligations imposed on States by Art. 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in relation to this right. It then focuses on a particular threat to a fair trial, in the form of the reporting of imminent or current legal proceedings, which may raise a risk that the outcome of those proceedings will be adversely affected. This is dealt with in English law primarily by the offence of contempt of court. The final section deals with a particular type of contempt related to the extent to which a court can compel a journalist to disclose his or her source.

Book

Cover English Legal System

Helen Rutherford, Birju Kotecha, and Angela Macfarlane

English Legal System provides understanding of the operation of the legal system which is essential to the laying of a solid foundation on which to build further legal study. After offering practical advice on how to study the English Legal System, there is an overview of the nature of law, the sources of law, how the English legal system operates, the courts of England and Wales, and some of the important institutions and personnel of the law. How legislation is made and how it is interpreted is discussed. How judges make law and how this process is governed by the doctrine of judicial precedent are explored. The legal precedent set by a case the ratio decidendi, and other statements of law, obiter dicta, are explained. The book considers the impact of membership of the European Union (EU), being a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), and Brexit. The institutions and personnel of the law: juries, judges, and lawyers are covered. The criminal process, from arrest to trial, to sentencing, is explained and analysed. Resolution of disputes through the civil courts and tribunals is explained, as is the civil process. Alternative methods of dispute resolution are considered.

Chapter

Cover Clarkson & Hill's Conflict of Laws

2. Civil jurisdiction  

Jonathan Hill

This chapter addresses the English court's jurisdiction other than in family law matters and excluding a few other kinds of proceedings. There are two types of claim which may be commenced in England: claims in personam and admiralty claims in rem. A claim inpersonam is one in which the claimant seeks a judgment requiring the defendant to pay money, deliver property or do, or refrain from doing, some other act. A claimant who wishes to commence proceedings in personam must be able to serve a claim form on the defendant — either in England or abroad. Admiralty proceedings in rem are directed against property, usually a ship. A typical case is where the claimant has a claim against a ship-owner in respect of his ship — for example, where the claimant's cargo has been damaged as a result of the negligent navigation of the vessel. The remainder of the chapter discusses the bases of jurisdiction in personam; declining jurisdiction and staying proceedings; provisional measure designed to maintain the status quo pending the outcome of the dispute between the parties; and restraining foreign proceedings.

Chapter

Cover Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, and Human Rights

18. Human Rights II: Emergent Principles  

This chapter presents an overview of the European Convention on Human Rights, an International treaty originating in the reconstruction of Europe’s political order following World War II. The chapter is organised as follows. Section I discusses the main procedural and substantive features of the Convention itself, whilst Section II assesses its status and use in English law up until (approximately) the early-1990s. Section III examines the leading judgments of the European Court on Human Rights in the areas of privacy and freedom of expression. The chapter goes on to consider how the UK constitution’s approach to the issue of civil liberties and human started to change in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Discussion focuses initially on the ways in which domestic courts began to use common law ideas to give increasing effect to the Convention’s provisions. The chapter then examines emerging arguments as to the benefits that might result from Parliament enacting a statute giving Convention articles a superior status to common law rules. The chapter then discusses the re-emergence and consolidation of fundamental human rights as an indigenous principle within the common law, and concludes by analysing the so-called ‘judicial supremacism’ controversy of the early and mid-1990s in which the courts’ increasingly forceful assertion of human rights ideas provoked substantial criticism from Conservative party politicians.